King' s and Queen' s





Edward VI

Edward VI, King of England

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Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine.[1] The son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward was the third monarch of the Tudor dynasty and England's first Protestant ruler. During Edward’s reign, the realm was governed by a Regency Council, because he never reached maturity. The Council was led from 1547 to 1549 by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, and from 1550 to 1553 by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, who in 1551 became 1st Duke of Northumberland.


Edward's reign was marked by economic problems, military withdrawal from Scotland and Boulogne-sur-Mer, and social unrest that in 1549 erupted into riot and rebellion. It also saw the transformation of the Anglican Church into a recognisably Protestant body.[2] Henry VIII had severed the link between the Church of England and Rome, and during Edward's reign, Protestantism was established for the first time in England, with reforms that included the abolition of clerical celibacy and the mass, and the imposition of compulsory services in English. The architect of these reforms was Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, whose Book of Common Prayer has proved lasting.


Edward fell terminally ill in 1553, he and his Council drew up a "Devise for the Succession" in an attempt to prevent a Catholic backlash against the Protestant Reformation. Edward named his cousin Lady Jane Grey as his heir and excluded his two half sisters, the Catholic Mary and Protestant Elizabeth. On Edward's death at the age of 15, the succession was disputed. Jane survived as queen for only nine days before the Privy Council proclaimed Mary, for whom the people had risen in support in the counties. As queen, Mary proceeded to undo many of Edward's Protestant reforms, but Elizabeth's religious settlement of 1559 was to secure his Protestant legacy


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Lady Catherine Grey

Lady Catherine Grey, Sister of Jane Grey, Granddaughter of Princess Mary Tudor

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Lady Catherine Grey (sometimes spelled "Katherine") ( 25 August 1540 - 26 January 1568), Countess of Hertford, was the second surviving daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Lady Frances Brandon. She was the younger sister of Lady Jane Grey and older sister of Lady Mary Grey. She was born at Bradgate Park in the vicinity of Leicester.


Her maternal grandparents were Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Mary Tudor, former Queen consort of France. Mary was the daughter of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York and the younger sister of Henry VIII of England.

Catherine was married to Henry Herbert, son of William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke at Durham House on 21 May 1553, the same day as her sister Jane was married to Guilford Dudley. After the wedding, Catherine went to live with her husband at Baynard's Castle on the Thames.

Jane Grey was the designated heir of Edward VI of England, son of Henry VIII by his third queen consort, Jane Seymour. Edward VI died on 6 July 1553 and Jane was proclaimed Queen regnant on 10 July. Edward VI had removed his older half-sisters Mary, daughter of Henry VIII by Catherine of Aragon, and Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII by Anne Boleyn, from the line of succession.

Jane was deposed in favour of Mary on 19 July 1553. The Earl of Pembroke sought to distance himself from the Grey family and cast out Catherine from his home and had her unconsummated marriage annulled.

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The deposed Queen was executed on 12 February 1554. Mary continued to reign until her natural death on 17 November 1558. She was also the second queen consort of Philip II of Spain. Mary died childless and was succeeded by her younger half-sister, Elizabeth.

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Elizabeth was herself unwed and childless. The matter of her succession would bring Catherine Grey to relative prominence. As a granddaughter of Mary Tudor and great-granddaughter of Henry VII, Catherine had a valid claim to the throne of the Kingdom of England. In fact, under Henry VIII's will she could claim to be next-in-line to the throne and was therefore as significant a threat to Queen Elizabeth as Jane had been to Queen Mary. However, at one point the queen seemed to be warming to Catherine, as a potential Protestant heir, and it was rumoured that she was considering adopting her.

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During her time at the court of Queen Mary, Catherine had become friendly with Jane Seymour, daughter of Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset and niece of Henry VIII's third wife. Through Jane, Catherine met her brother Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, and fell in love with him. In December 1560, Lady Catherine secretly married Edward Seymour. The wedding was conducted at Edward's house in Canon Row, and Jane Seymour was the only witness. There is no formal record of the marriage, which was considered invalid since Catherine did not have the Queen's official permission to wed.

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Queen Elizabeth sent Edward away to France with Thomas Cecil, eldest son of William Cecil. The two were to tour Europe in order to improve their education. Seymour provided his wife with a document that would, in the event of his death, allow her to prove the marriage and inherit his property. Catherine, however, lost the document. Thus, when the always frail Jane Seymour died of tuberculosis, Catherine was not only left alone and friendless at court, she also had no means of proving that she was married.

Catherine concealed the marriage from everyone for months, even after she became pregnant; in her eighth month of pregnancy and on progress with the court in Ipswich, she saw no choice but to seek help from influential court members. She first confided in Bess of Hardwick, Lady Saintloe; however, Bess, frightened that both she and Catherine would possibly be condemned to death for such treachery, not only refused to aid Catherine but also berated the unfortunate girl for having implicated her. Catherine then secretly visited Robert Dudley, brother-in-law to her dead sister Jane, in his bedroom at night and pleaded with him for help. Dudley also refused to help her and then, fearful of the Queen discovering the visit and suspecting an affair, he immediately told Elizabeth everything he knew.

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Elizabeth was greatly angered that her cousin, being so close in line to the throne, had married anyone without her permission, and also did not approve of her choice of husband. Catherine was imprisoned in the Tower of London, where Edward joined her on his return to England. Even Bess of Hardwick was imprisoned, as Elizabeth became convinced that the marriage was part of a wider conspiracy against herself.

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The marriage was annulled in 1562 but resulted in two children, both of whom were born in the Tower :

* Edward Seymour, Lord Beauchamp of Hache (1561–1612).
* Thomas Seymour (born 1563).

Lady Catherine died at Cockfield Hall on 26 January 1568 at the age of 27 of consumption and was buried in the Cockfield Chapel in Yoxford church in Suffolk. Her children were regarded as ineligible to succeed to the throne because of the annulled marriage, which technically rendered them illegitimate. However, in the reigns of Elizabeth I and later James I of England they were courted as potential heirs .

Claude de Lorraine

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Claude de Lorraine, maternal grandfather of Mary, Queen of Scots

Claude de Lorraine (20 October 1496, Château de Condé-sur-Moselle, – 12 April 1550, Château de Joinville) was the first Duke of Guise, from 1528 to his death.

He was the second son of René II, Duke of Lorraine and was educated at the French court of Francis I. At seventeen, Claude made an alliance to the royal house of France by a marriage with Antoinette de Bourbon (1493–1583), daughter of François, Count of Vendôme.

Claude distinguished himself at the battle of Marignano (1515), and was long in recovering from the twenty-two wounds he received in the battle. In 1521 he fought at Fuenterrabia, and Louise of Savoy ascribed the capture of the place to his efforts. In 1523 he became governor of Champagne and Burgundy, after defeating at Neufchâteau the imperial troops who had invaded this province. In 1525 he destroyed the Anabaptist peasant army, which was overrunning Lorraine, at Lupstein, near Saverne (Zabern).

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On the return of Francis I from captivity in 1528, Claude was made Duke of Guise in the peerage of France, though up to this time only princes of the royal house had held the title of duke and peer of France. The Guises, as cadets of the sovereign house of Lorraine and descendants of the house of Anjou, claimed precedence of the Bourbon princes of Condé and Conti.

Their pretensions and ambitions inspired distrust in Francis I, although he rewarded Guise's services by substantial gifts in land and money. The duke distinguished himself in the Luxembourg campaign in 1542, but for some years before his death he effaced himself before the growing fortunes of his sons.

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Antoinette de Bourbon

Antoinette de Bourbon, maternal grandmother of Mary, Queen of Scots

Antoinette de Bourbon-La Marche (25 December 1493 – 22 January 1583) was a French noblewoman of the House of Bourbon. She was the wife of Claude of Lorraine. Through her eldest daughter, Mary of Guise, Queen consort of King James V of Scotland, she was the maternal grandmother of Mary, Queen of Scots.Antoinette was born on 25 December 1493 at the Chateau de Ham, in the Somme department, Picardy, France, the eldest daughter of François, Count of Vendôme and Marie de Luxembourg. She had four brothers and a sister. Her paternal grandparents were Jean VIII, Count of Vendome and Isabelle de Beauveau. Her maternal grandparents were Pierre II de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol and Marguerite of Savoy. She married Claude of Lorraine on 9 June 1513. Together they had 12 children.Antoinette was described as having been a remarkable woman, combining a strong sense of family pride with a wry sense of humour. She exhibited considerable administrative talent at domestic economy as well as in the running of the vast Guise dominions surrounding their chateau of Joinville.


She exerted a powerful influence on the childhood of her granddaughter Mary, Queen of Scots during the latter's thirteen-year sojourn in France, and was one of her principal advisors. Antoinette acted as proxy for her daughter, Mary of Guise during the betrothal ceremony of the Queen of Scots and the Dauphin Francis in 1558.[3]

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Antoinette de Bourbon died on 22 January 1583 at the Chateau de Joinville. She was eighty-nine years of age, having outlived all of her children save her daughter Reneé, Abbess of St. Pierre. Her cherished granddaughter, Mary, Queen of Scots was executed four years after her death.

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Probably Anne Parr ?

Probably Anne Parr, Sister of Queen Katherine Parr

Anne Parr was the daughter of Sir Thomas Parr (1478-1517) and Maud Green (1492-1531). She was the sister and confidant of Henry VIII's sixth queen, Katherine Parr. This is a portrait prep sketch by Holbein

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Anne was born about 1514 to Sir Thomas Parr and Maud Green. She was the youngest child of three, having an older sister Catherine and brother William Parr, 1st Marquess of Northampton. In 1517, when she was about three years of age, her father died of the sweating sickness leaving her mother a widow at twenty-two and with the grave responsibility of guarding the inheritance of the Parr children. Maud, Lady Parr was a maid-of-honour to Catherine of Aragon. She was also head of the Royal school at court where Anne was educated alongside her sister Catherine and other daughters of the nobility. They were taught by the brilliant Humanist scholar Joan Lluís Vives who was the principal tutor at the Royal school. Anne would have been taught French, Latin, philosophy, theology, and the Classics. Lady Parr had already taught her children to read and write when they were small.

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Sometime in 1528, Lady Parr secured her daughter, Anne, a post at Court as maid-of-honour to Catherine of Aragon. Anne was then made a ward of King Henry. When Anne Boleyn was crowned queen in 1533, Anne Parr continued in the same capacity as maid-of-honour . She quickly succumbed to the spell of Queen Anne's charismatic personality and following the Queen's example, she became an ardent supporter of the New Faith. After Anne Boleyn's fall from power and subsequent execution, Anne remained at Court in the service of the new queen, Jane Seymour. She was one of the few present at the baptism of Prince Edward on 15 October 1537.

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In February 1538, Anne married William Herbert (c.1501-17 March 1570), Esquire of the King's Body. The Herberts appeared to be in the King's favour, as for the next few years Anne and her husband received a succession of Royal grants which included the Abbey of Wilton in Wiltshire, and lands in the West Country. Anne had three children by her husband: Henry, Edward, and Anne. When King Henry took as his fourth wife Anne of Cleves, Anne returned to her role as maid-of-honour, which she remained in when Queen Anne was supplanted by Catherine Howard. Following Queen Catherine's arrest for adultery, Anne Parr was entrusted with the Queen's jewels.

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Anne Parr was a witness to the wedding ceremony performed at Hampton Court Palace on 12 July, 1543, when King Henry married her sister Catherine. In September 1544, William Herbert was knighted on the battlefield at the Siege of Boulogne during the King's campaign against the French. Anne, now Lady Herbert, was her sister's principal lady-in-waiting and the sisters were close. Anne was also part of the circle of Protestants who surrounded the new Queen. In 1546, when Anne Askew was arrested for heresy. Queen Catherine and some of her closest friends had previously shown favour to the arrested woman. Bishop Stephen Gardiner, Thomas Wriothesley and Richard Rich were involved in torturing Anne Askew and interrogating her about her connections to the ladies at court who were suspected to be Protestants, in particular, Anne Parr, the Queen, Katherine Willoughby and Anne Stanhope. They obtained the King’s permission to arrest and question the Queen about her religious beliefs.

Catherine of Aragon

Elizabeth I

Catherine visited the King in his bedchamber and adroitly managed to persuade the King that her interest in the new religion had been undertaken solely as a means to provide stimulating conversation to distract the King from the pain caused by his ulcerous leg. Henry was appeased, and before the arrests were due to take place, he was reconciled to Catherine. On 28 January, 1547, the King died. William Herbert was appointed guardian to the new king, Edward VI. Catherine shortly afterwards married Thomas Seymour, Lord Sudeley, Lord High Admiral of England, who was an uncle of King Edward. In September 1548, following the birth of a daughter, Mary, Catherine Parr died of puerperal fever. On 11 October 1551, William Herbert was created 1st Earl of Pembroke. Anne died in 1552. William married as his second wife, Anne Talbot, but the marriage produced no children. Through her sons, Anne has many descendants, including the earls of Pembroke

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Mary, Queen of Scots, and James VI, King of Scotland

In realty, they were separated when he was a baby and she never saw him again


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Caroline Bonaparte, Queen of Naples

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Eliabeth I

A painting of Eliabeth I on display at the Tower of London
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Elizabeth I, the Phoenix Portrait by Nicholas Hilliard

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Elizabeth I in old age

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Eliabeth I

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King James V


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Francis, Duke of Guise, Brother of Marie de Guise, Uncle of Mary, Queen of Scots
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Francis de Lorraine II, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Duke of Aumale (February 17, 1519 – February 24, 1563), called Balafré ("the scarred"), was a French soldier and politician.Born at Bar-le-Duc (Lorraine), Guise was the son of Claude, created duc de Guise in 1527, and his wife Antoinette de Bourbon. His sister Mary of Guise was wife of James V of Scotland and mother of Mary I of Scotland. His younger brother was Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine. He was the youthful cousin of Henri II, with whom he was raised and by birth a prominent individual in France, though his detractors emphasised his "foreign" origin, namely the Duchy of Lorraine.
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In 1545, he gained his sobriquet through a wound sustained at the second siege of Boulogne. In 1548 he was magnificently wedded to Anna d'Este, daughter of the duke of Ferrara and his French princess, a daughter of Louis XII.he was wounded on 18 February 1563 by the Huguenot assassin, Jean de Poltrot de Méré, and died six days later, bled to death by his surgeons, at Château Corney.
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Johanna of Austria

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Johanna of Austria, granddaughter of Juana of Castile, great-niece of Catherine of Aragon
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Johanna of Austria (24 January 1547 – 11 April 1578), was the youngest daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. By marriage, she was a Grand Duchess of Tuscany; one of her daughters was the famous Marie de Medici, Queen-consort and second wife of King Henri IV of France.
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Maria of Spain and Emperor Maximillian II

Maria of Spain and Emperor Maximillian II, grandchildren of Juana of Castile, great-niece and nephew of Catherine of Aragon,and their children
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Maria of Spain,

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Maria of Spain, Granddaughter of Juana of Castile, Great-Niece of Catherine of Aragon
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Maria of Spain (Madrid, June 21, 1528 - Villa Monte, February 26, 1603) was the first daughter of Charles V and Isabella of Portugal. She was also the wife of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor.
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At the request of her father, she and her husband were regents of Spain, in his absence. In 1552, they moved to live in Vienna. They had sixteen children.

Maria of Spain had great influence over her sons, the future emperors Rudolf and Matthias. Maria was a radical Roman Catholic and frequently disagreed with her more tolerant husband.

After her husband's death in 1576, she returned to Spain in 1582. Arriving back in Spain, she commented to be very happy to live in "a country without heretics". She led an unassuming life until her death in 1603.

She was the patron of the noted Spanish composer Tomás Luis de Victoria, and the great Requiem Mass he wrote in 1603 for her funeral is considered among the finest and most refined of his works.

Johanna van Oostenrijk

Johanna of Austria, Granddaughter of Juana of Castile, Great Niece of Catherine of Aragon

Johanna of Austria (24 January 1547 – 11 April 1578), was the youngest daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. By marriage, she was a Grand Duchess of Tuscany; one of her daughters was the famous Marie de Medici, Queen-consort and second wife of King Henri IV of France.Johanna was born in Prague as the youngest of 15 children. She never knew her mother and eldest sister: her mother Anna died 2 days after Johanna's birth and her sister Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of Poland, had died in 1545, two years before Johanna was born.

Her paternal grandparents were Philip, Duke of Burgundy and Joanna of Castile. Her maternal grandparents were King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary, and Anna of Foix-Candale. Through her father, Johanna was also a descendant of Isabella I of Castile and Mary of Burgundy.

Her marriage to Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, took place on 25 December 1565 in Florence, after she solemny arrived to the city by the Porta al Prato. Giorgio Vasari and Vincenzo Borghini, with the help of Giovanni Caccini made big festivities for these event.

Nevertless, Johanna was homesick and unhappy. Ignored by her husband, and despised by the Florentines for her Austrian hauteur, she never felt at home in Florence.

Her father-in-law, Cosimo I de' Medici, was reasonably kind to Johanna. He had the courtyard of the Palazzo Vecchio specially decorated for her; the lunettes were painted with murals of Austrian towns by pupils of Vasari, and Verrocchio's Putto with Dolphin fountain was brought down from the Careggi villa where it had been set up in the garden by Lorenzo de' Medici.

The position of Johanna in the Florentine court was during most of her marriage, difficult: between 1566 and 1575, she gave birth to six daughters, of whom only three survived infancy. The absence of a male heir to continue the dynasty was the cause of constant conflict with her husband, who preferred the company and love of his mistress Bianca Capello, who - although some call it a fraud- gave birth a son, Antonio, in 1576.

Finally, in 1577 Johanna gave the long-awaited heir, baptized Filippo in honour to the King Philip II of Spain, Johanna's first cousin. The birth was celebrated with great joy by all the court, because was secured the succession of the Grand Duchy for another generation and eliminated all the hopes of Bianca Capello to made her "son" Antonio as heir of Tuscany. At the end, was Johanna's brother-in-law, Ferdinando, who succeeded Francesco as Grand Duke.
On 10 April 1578 Johanna, heavily pregnant from her eighth child, fell from the stairs in the Grand Ducal Palace in Florence. Some hours later, she gave birth a son, who, born prematurely, died immediately. At the morning of the next day, 11 April, she also died. Francesco subsequently married his mistress, Bianca Cappello.

The mysterious circumstances around these accident made the rumours, who accused her husband Francesco and Bianca together murdered Johanna so that they could be married.

Emmanuel Philbert

Emmanuel Philbert, Duke of Savoy, Grandson of Juana of Castile, Great-Nephew of Catherine of Aragon

Emmanuel Philibert (in Italian Emanuele Filiberto; known as "Testaferro" in English "Ironhead," because of his military career, 8 July 1528 – 30 August 1580) was Duke of Savoy from 1553 to 1580.

Born in Chambéry, Emmanuel Philibert was the only child of Charles III, Duke of Savoy and Beatrice of Portugal to reach adulthood. His mother was sister-in-law to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and the future duke served in Charles's army during the war against Francis I of France, distinguishing himself by capturing Hesdin in July 1553. A month later, he became duke on the death of his father, but this was a nearly empty honour, as the vast majority of his hereditary lands had been occupied and administered by the French since 1536. Instead, he continued to serve the Habsburgs in hopes of recovering his lands, and served his maternal first cousin King Philip II as Governor of the Netherlands from 1555-1559.

In this capacity he personally led the Spanish invasion of northern France and won a brilliant victory at Saint-Quentin in August 1557. He was a suitor to Lady Elizabeth Tudor, the future Queen Elizabeth I. He had barely any money at that time.

By the Peace of Cateau Cambrésis between France and Spain, (1559) the duchy was restored to Emmanuel Philibert and he married his half-first cousin once removed Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry (1523-1574), daughter of King Francis I of France and sister to King Henry II. Their only child was Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy.

Emmanuel Philibert spent his rule regaining what had been lost in the costly wars with France. A skilled political strategist, he took advantage of various squabbles in Europe to slowly regain territory from both the French and the Spanish, including the city of Turin. He also purchased two territories. Internally, he moved the capital of the duchy from Chambéry to Turin and replaced Latin as the duchy's official language with Italian[citation needed]. He was attempting to acquire the marquisate of Saluzzo

Arabella Stewart, a miniture by Nicholas Hilliard


Mary, Queen of Scots,


Arbella Stewart

Arbella Stewart as a toddler

Arbella Stuart (or "Arabella" and/or "Stewart") (1575 - 27 September 1615) was an English Renaissance noblewoman who was for some time considered a possible successor to Queen Elizabeth I on the English throne.


Death mask of King Henry VII of England;


Arbella Stuart was a direct descendant of King Henry VII of England. As the only child of Charles Stuart, Earl of Lennox and Elizabeth Cavendish, she was a grandchild of Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox and Margaret Douglas, who was, in turn, the daughter of Margaret Tudor, widow of James IV of Scotland, mother of James V of Scotland, and daughter of England's Henry VII. Margaret Douglas was the product of Margaret Tudor's second marriage, to Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus.

Descendants of Charles II of England


Arbella's paternal grandparents, the 4th Earl of Lennox and Margaret Douglas, had two sons: Arbella's father Charles and his older brother, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, who became the second husband of Mary I of Scotland, also called Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of James I of Great Britain. Arbella's maternal grandparents were Sir William Cavendish and Bess of Hardwick.

In her final days, as a prisoner in the Tower of London, Lady Arabella Seymour (her married name), refusing to eat, fell ill, and died on 27 September 1615. She was buried in Westminster Abbey on 29 September 1615. She did not aspire to the English throne.

Family tree of King James I and VI of England and Scotland.

Arbella's father died in 1576 when she was still an infant. She was raised by her mother Elizabeth Cavendish until 1582.[2] The death of her mother left seven-year-old Arbella an orphan, whereupon she became the ward of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley.

Charles II's French mistress, Louise de Keroualle Duchess of Portsmouth. She had to share the King's bed with a number of other women, including the actress Nell Gwynne, contributing to the court's reputation for debauchery

During most of her childhood she lived in the protective isolation of Hardwick Hall with her maternal grandmother, the redoubtable Bess of Hardwick, who had been married in 1568 to George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury. There were, apparently, periodic visits to the court of Elizabeth I of England and to London, including one that lasted for a few years, from September 1589 to July 1592. Historian David Durant has suggested that, during this period, "In effect Bess was moving the operational centre of her business empire from Derbyshire to London".[3]

An extant note in French, written to Lord Burghley in Arbella's Italic hand and addressed on the eve of the Spanish Armada battles, was dated 13 July 1588 and "postmarked" from the Talbots' Coleman Street Residence in London. It is certain proof of the London visits.[4]

MATTHEW STEWAR


About 1589, one "Morley" became Arbella's "attendant" and "reader," as reported in a dispatch from Bess of Hardwick to Lord Burghley, dated 21 September 1592.[5] Bess recounts "Morley's" service to Arbella over "the space of three years and a half." She also notes he requested a lifetime stipend from Arbella based on the fact he had "been much damnified by leaving the University"; this has led to speculation that 'Morley' was the poet Christopher Marlowe.

For some time before 1592, Arbella was considered one of the natural candidates for succession to the English crown, after her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I (Marshall, 601). However, between the end of 1592 and the spring of 1593, the influential Cecils, Elizabeth's Secretaries of State Lord Burghley and his son Sir Robert Cecil) turned their attention away from Arbella towards James VI of Scotland, regarding him as a preferable successor.[7] Burghley wrote "If my hand were free from pain I would not commit this much to any other man's hand".[citation needed]


In 1603, after James's ascension to the English throne, there was a plot (in which Sir Walter Raleigh was alleged to being involved) to overthrow him and put Arbella on the throne; but when she was invited to participate by agreeing in writing to Philip III of Spain, she reported the plan to James.

Bess of Hardwick


Owing to Arbella's status as a possible heir to the throne, there was discussion of an appropriate marriage for her throughout her childhood. It would have suited the Roman Catholic Church for her to marry a member of the House of Savoy and then take the English throne. A marriage was also mooted with Ranuccio, eldest son of Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma and Maria of Portugal. According to the Curiosities of Literature by Isaac D'Israeli, this scheme originated with the Pope, who eventually settled on his own brother, a cardinal, as a suitable husband for Arbella; the Pope defrocked his brother, freeing him to marry "Arbelle" (as the Italians spelled her name) and thus claim the Kingdom of England. Nothing came of this plan, and in fact there is no direct evidence that Arbella was either a believing Catholic or a Protestant.

James VI and I, and Anne of Denmark, with family tree in centre beneath ...



In the closing months of Elizabeth's reign, Arbella fell into trouble via reports that she intended to marry Edward Seymour, a member of the prominent Seymour family.[citation needed] This was reported to the Queen by the supposed groom's grandfather, Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford. Arbella denied having any intention of marrying without the Queen's permission, which she would have required for any marriage to be legal.
Anne_of_Danemark


In 1588, it was proposed to James VI of Scotland that Esmé Stuart, 2nd Duke of Lennox should be married to Arbella, but nothing seems to have come of this suggestion.[8] In 1604, Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland sent an ambassador to England to ask for Arbella to be his queen. This offer was rejected.[citation needed]

Esme Stuart 1st Duke of Lennox


There are some indications that Arbella tried to elope in about 1604 and that she fell out of favour with King James I as a result; she was certainly out of sight until 1608, when she was restored to the King's good graces

In 1610, Arbella, who was fourth in line to the English throne, was in trouble again for planning to marry William Seymour, sixth in line, grandson of Lady Catherine Grey, a younger sister of Lady Jane Grey and a granddaughter of Mary Tudor, younger sister of King Henry VIII and Arbella's ancestress, Margaret Tudor.


Although the couple at first denied that any arrangement existed between them, they later married in secret on 22 June 1610 at Greenwich Palace. For marrying without his permission, King James imprisoned them: Arbella in Sir Thomas Perry's house in Lambeth and Seymour in the Tower of London. The couple had some liberty within those buildings, and some of Arbella's letters to Seymour and to the King during this period survive. When the King learned of her letters to Seymour, however, he ordered Arbella's transfer to the custody of William James, Bishop of Durham. Arbella claimed to be ill, so her departure for Durham was delayed.

(1493 – 1555, German)


The couple used that delay to plan their escape. Arbella dressed as a man and escaped to Lee (in Kent), but Seymour did not meet her there before their getaway ship was to sail for France. Sara Jayne Steen records that Imogen, the virtuous, cross-dressed heroine of William Shakespeare's play Cymbeline (1610-1611) has sometimes been read as a reference to Arbella.[9] Seymour did escape from the Tower, but by the time he reached Lee, Arbella was gone, so he caught the next ship to Flanders. Arbella's ship was overtaken by King James's men just before it reached Calais, France, and she was returned to England and imprisoned in the Tower of London. She never saw her husband again and starved herself to death in the Tower in 1615.

Matthew Stewart and Margaret Douglas

Margaret Douglas, daughter of Princess Margaret Tudor, with her 2nd husband, Matthew Stewart, Earl of Lennox

Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley

Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, son of Margaret Douglas, grandson of Margaret Tudor, husband and cousin of Mary, Queen of Scots
This portrait of the husband to Mary Queen of Scots, King Consort of Scotland, shows him prominently...


Sir Thomas More

Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535), also known as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, scholar]], author, and statesman. During his life he gained a reputation as a leading Renaissance humanist, a violent opponent of the Reformation of Martin Luther, and a government official. For the last six years of his life he was Lord Chancellor.

More coined the word "utopia" - a name he gave to the ideal, imaginary island nation whose political system he described in Utopia, published in 1516. An important counsellor to Henry VIII of England, he was imprisoned and executed by beheading in 1535 after he had fallen out of favor with the king over his refusal to sign the Act of Supremacy 1534, which declared the King the Supreme Head of the Church of England, effecting a final split with the Catholic Church in Rome.

In 1935, four hundred years after More's death, Pope Pius XI canonized him in the Roman Catholic Church. More was declared patron saint of politicians and statesmen by Pope John Paul II in 2000. In 1969, More's name was included in the General Roman Calendar, with a memorial in which he is venerated with John Fisher on 22 June, the day of the latter's death. In 1980, More was added to the Church of England's calendar of saints, again jointly with John Fisher, but on July 6, the day of More's death.

by; or by Willem van de Passe; Magdalena van de Passe,print,1620

Margaret Tudor

Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scotland, daughter of Henry VII, sister of Henry VIII, grandmother of Mary Queen of Scots

c.1620-38

Daniel Mytens

Presumably painted for Charles I.

My personal theory is that this portrait uses as its model Charles I's niece, Elizabeth, the daughter of his sister Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia.

Henry VIII, King of England, 1520s

Henry VIII, King of England

Phillip II

Phillip II, King of Spain, great-nephew of Catherine of Aragon, Husband of

Queen Mary I

Elizabeth Wydville

Anne Boleyn, de tweede vrouw van koning Henry VIII, woonde circa 1501/36

Elizabeth Wydville, Queen of England, Mother of Elizabeth of York, Grandmother of Arthur, Margaret, Henry, and Mary Tudor

Karel V en de keizerin Isabella

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, son of Juana of Castile, nephew of Catherine of Aragon.

Charles V (24 February 1500 — 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519

Anna van Oostenrijk

Anne of Austria, Granddaughter of Juana of Castile,Great-Niece of Catherine of Aragon

Anna of Austria (Prague, July 7, 1528 – Munich, October 16, 1590) was the daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (1503–1547).

She was engaged several times as a child, first to Prince Theodor of Bavaria (1526–1534), then to Charles of Orleans (1522–1545), but both died young.

Anna finally married on July 4, 1546 in Regensburg at the age of 17 , Duke Albert V, Duke of Bavaria, the brother of her first fiancé. The wedding gift was 50,000 Guilder. The couple lived at the Trausnitz Castle in Landshut, until Albert became Duke.

Anna and Albert had great influence on the spiritual life in the Duchy, and enhanced the reputation of Munchen as a city of art, by founding several musea and the Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek. Anna and Albert were also patrons to the painter Hans Müelich, and composer Orlando di Lasso.

King Phillip II of Spai

King Phillip II of Spain, grandson of Juana of Castile, Great-Nephew of Catherine of Aragon,Husband of Queen Mary I

was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king of England, as husband of Mary I from 1554 to 1558[1][2], lord of the Seventeen Provinces from 1556 until 1581, holding various titles for the individual territories, such as Duke or Count; and King of Portugal and the Algarves as Philip I from 1581. He ruled one of the largest global empires the world had ever seen which included territories in every continent then known to Europeans. Philip's dominions further included the Kingdom of Sicily, the Duchy of Milan, and Franche Comté, a strategically important territory on the eastern borders of the kingdom of France.


During his reign, Spain was the foremost Western European power. Under his rule, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. It must be kept in mind that at that time there was no united "Kingdom of Spain" and that the king was king of Castile and king of Aragon and King of Portugal and Duke of Burgundy and the Netherlands and so on,which were separate kingdoms and realms with their own structures, laws and usages.

Philip was born in Valladolid, the eldest son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and his consort Isabella of Portugal.
Philip was married four times and had children with three of his wives. Even so, most of his children died young. This was during a time when disease carried away up to 50% of the children in the royal nursery.

Philip's first wife was his double first cousin, Maria Manuela, Princess of Portugal; she was daughter of John III of Portugal and Catherine of Habsburg. Philip and Maria were both young and the prince displayed no affection for his wife. The marriage produced one son, who Maria died giving birth to.

* Carlos, Prince of Asturias, (July 8, 1545 – July 24, 1568), died unmarried and no issue


Philip's second wife was his second cousin Mary I of England. Mary was significantly older then Philip, and the marriage was political - although Philip did his best to be kind to the queen. By this marriage, Philip became consort of England, but the marriage produced no children and Mary died in 1558.

Philip's third wife was Elisabeth of Valois, she was the eldest daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici. Elisabeth was very young at the time, and Philip was very attached to her. For the most part, their union was quite harmonious. Their marriage produced five children, Elisabeth died giving birth to the youngest. Philip deeply mourned this loss.

* Miscarried twin daughters (1564)
* Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain, married Albert VII, Archduke of Austria but had no issue.
* Catherine Michelle of Spain, married Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy and had issue.
* miscarried daughter (1568)

Philip's forth and final wife was Anne of Austria, who was also his niece. This marriage produced four sons and a daughter. The king was said to have been very much in love with the young and fair Anna. (There are no records of mistresses during this time in his life.) Anna had a personality very much like his own, and he was devoted to her. Their children were

* Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias: 4 December 1571 – 18 October 1578, died young

Mesdach

* Carlos Lorenzo: 12 August 1573 – 30 June 1575, died young
* Diego, Prince of Asturias: 15 August 1575 – 21 November 1582, died young
* Philip: 3 April 1578 – 31 March 1621 (future king, Philip III of Spain)
* Maria: 14 February 1580 – 5 August 1583, died young
Anglo-American societies have generally held a very low opinion of Philip II. The traditional approach is perhaps epitomized by James Johonnot's Ten Great Events in History, in which he describes Philip II as a "vain, bigoted, and ambitious" monarch who "had no scruples in regard to means... placed freedom of thought under a ban, and put an end to the intellectual progress of the country".[8] Spanish apologists sometimes classify this analysis as part of the Black Legend.

The defence of the Catholic Church and the defeat and destruction of the Protestantism was one of his most important goals. He did not fully accomplish this; England broke with Rome after the death of Mary, the Holy Roman Empire remained partly Protestant and the revolt in Holland continued. Nevertheless, he prevented Protestantism from gaining a grip in Spain and Portugal and the colonies in the New World, and successfully re-established Catholicism in the reconquered southern half of the Low Countries.

Philip was a complex man. He was given to suspicion of members of his court, and was something of a meddlesome micro-manager; but he was not the cruel tyrant painted by his opponents and subsequent anglophile histories. He took great care in administering his dominions, and was known to intervene personally on behalf of the humblest of his subjects.

Philip II died in 1598. His was a painful death which involved a severe attack of gout, fever and dropsy. He died in El Escorial, near Madrid, and was succeeded by his son Philip III. The Philippines, a former Spanish colony, is named in his honor.

Catharina van Oostenrijk

Catherine of Austria, Great Granddaughter of Juana of Castile, Great-Niece of Catherine of Aragon

Catherine of Austria (September 15, 1533 – February 28, 1572) was a member of the House of Habsburg, Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania and the consort of King Sigismund II Augustus. Catherine was one of the fifteen children of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. On October 22, 1549, she married Francesco III Gonzaga, prince of Mantua. He died four months after marriage. On June 23, 1553, she became the third wife of King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland and Lithuania, who was her paternal first cousin.

Caterina_van_Hemessen


Catherine became pregnant and miscarried in October 1554. After the miscarriage, the King decided that his marriage was cursed because Catherine was sister of his first wife. He vainly attempted to have the marriage annulled, and in the autumn of 1566, Catherine left Poland and lived until her death in 1572 in Linz.

Catherine of Austria was buried in 1614 in the Sankt Florian monastery near Linz in Austria.

Lettice Knollys

Lettice Knollys, great-niece of Anne Boleyn, Granddaughter of Mary Boleyn

Laetitia Knollys, Countess of Essex and Leicester (November 1543[1] - 25 December 1634), normally referred to as Lettice Knollys, was born in Rotherfield Greys, Oxfordshire. She was the mother of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, Queen Elizabeth I's famous courtier, she was also the mother of the remarkable Penelope, Lady Rich. In her second marriage, Lettice Knollys was wife to Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Elizabeth's great favourite. Being a relative of Elizabeth on her mother's side, the Queen came to hate her greatly due to this marriage. After the death of the Earl of Leicester, Lettice married Sir Christopher Blount. As Dowager Countess, she continued to be styled Lady Leicester.


Anne van Denemarken, de vrouw van koning James I circa 1612


Around 1560, Lettice married Walter Devereux, Viscount Hereford. Walter was raised to the earldom of Essex in 1572. The couple lived at the Devereux family seat of Chartley in Staffordshire, where Lettice bore her first two children: daughters Penelope (born 1563) and Dorothy Devereux (born 1564). Lettice sometimes returned to court. It was there in the summer of 1565 that she flirted with Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, the great favourite of Queen Elizabeth. The Queen found out at once, and succumbed to a prolonged fit of jealousy.[2] Lettice went back to Staffordshire, where she gave birth to her first son, Robert. Walter (born 1569) and Francis (born 1572) followed. Francis died as an infant.
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Sir Amias Paulet

Sir Amias Paulet, ambassador, gaoler of Mary Queen of Scots

Sir Amias Paulet (1532 – 26 September 1588) was the son of Sir Hugh Paulet and Philippa Pollard. His name is sometimes spelt 'Amyas'.

In 1559 he was made Lieutenant Governor of Jersey, one of the Channel Islands, his father being Governor. He kept this post until 1573. His father Hugh died in that year, and Paulet was then raised to his position as Governor, a post he held until his death.

In 1576 Queen Elizabeth raised him to knighthood, appointed him Ambassador to Paris and at the same time put the young Francis Bacon under his charge. Paulet was in this embassy until he was recalled November, 1579. In 1579, he took into his household, the young Jean Hotman, son of Francis Hotman, to tutor his two sons Anthony and George. When the family returned to England, the tutor and his two charges settled at Oxford.

Sir Hugh Paulet


A fanatic Puritan who possessed a harsh character, Paulet was appointed gaoler of Mary Queen of Scots by Queen Elizabeth in January 1585, replacing the more tolerant Sir Ralph Sadler.[1] He remained her keeper until Mary's execution at Fotheringhay Castle on 8 February 1587.

Elizabeth CREEDY


Paulet died in London on 26 September 1588 and was buried in the church of St Martin's-in-the-Fields. "When that church was rebuilt, his remains were removed, together with the monument, to the parish church of Hinton St. George"

He married Margaret Harvey, and their son Anthony, succeeded his father as Governor of Jersey. By his wife, he had three sons and three daughters:

* Hugh (b. 1558), the eldest son, died before his father
* Anthony (b. 1562), was his father's heir
* George (b. 1565) by marriage with a distant cousin, Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Paulet, became the owner of Goathurst, in Somerset
* Joan married Robert Heyden of Bowood, Devonshire
* Sarah married Sir Francis Vincent of Stoke D'Abernon, Surrey
* Elizabeth died unmarried.

Henry VIII, 1530s

Francis Kingsmill, Lady Crocker

Francis Kingsmill, Lady Crocker

Christina van Denemarken

Christina of Denmark, daughter of Isabella of Austria, granddaughter of Juana of Castille, great niece of Catherine of Aragon

Christina of Denmark (1522 – 1590), was firstly Duchess-consort of Milan and then Duchess-consort of Lorraine. She was claimant to the thrones of Norway, Denmark and Sweden.

She was the younger surviving daughter of Christian II of Denmark and Isabella of Austria, sister of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Christina was born in Nyborg in central Denmark in 1522.

In 1533 she married by proxy Francesco II Sforza, Duke of Milan, who died in 1535.

In 1538, German painter Hans Holbein arrived in Brussels to meet Christina. Holbein had been commissioned by Henry VIII of England to paint portraits of noble women who were considered suitable brides. Christina had been mentioned after the death of Jane Seymour in 1537. Upon Holbein's arrival, Christina sat for a portrait, wearing mourning clothes. The English ambassador was arranging for Henry VIII to see the Duchess's likeness in connection with plans to marry her. Christina, then only sixteen years old, made no secret of her opposition to marrying the English king, who by this time had a reputation around Europe for his mistreatment of his wives. She supposedly told the English ambassador that "If I had two heads, one should be at the King of England's disposal."

Christina was also the grand-niece of Henry's first wife Catherine of Aragon through her mother.

After turning down Henry's proposal, in 1541 she married François, Duc de Bar. In an interesting twist of fate, this was the prince who had been betrothed to Anne of Cleves, who became the 4th wife of Henry VIII, after he was turned down by Christina. Francis succeeded his father as Duc de Lorraine in 1544 and died in 1545, leaving Christina as the Regent of Lorraine. She died in 1590.

In late 1550s and in 1560s, adventurer Wilhelm von Grumbach and his allies, who occasionally included Peder Oxe, intrigued to dethrone her second cousin king Frederick II of Denmark in Christina's favor. Nothing substantial came out of these activities.

Her son was Charles III, Duke of Lorraine, namesake of her uncle the emperor. Her daughter, Renata of Lorraine, married William V, Duke of Bavaria, and it is through her that the current Danish, Norwegian and Swedish royal families are descended.

Frances Stuart

Frances Stuart, Countess of Portland

Frances was the daughter of Esmé Stewart, 3rd Duke of Lennox. She married Jerome Weston, 2nd Earl of Portland (16 December 1605 – 17 March 1663), an English diplomat.He was the second but eldest surviving son of the 1st Earl of Portland, by his second wife Frances Walgrave. He was born at Neyland, Essex.

In 1632 and 1633, he undertook a diplomatic mission to the courts of France, Savoy, Florencee and Venice.[1] He succeeded his father as Earl of Portland in 1635.

Sir Bruce Robert Cotton

Sir Bruce Robert Cotton, 1626, politican and founder of the Cotton LIbrary

Sir Robert Bruce Cotton, 1st Baronet (22 January 1570/1 – 6 May 1631) was an English politician, founder of the famous Cotton library.

He was of a Huntingdonshire parentage and educated at Westminster School, where he became interested in antiquarian studies under William Camden, and Jesus College, Cambridge (B.A. 1585).[1] Starting with his antiquarian notes on the local history of Huntingdonshire, he began to amass a library, in which the documents rivalled, then surpassed the official Public Record Office collections. He entered the Parliament of England as a member for Huntingdon in 1601. He helped devise the institution of the title baronet as a means for King James I of England to raise funds. Despite his early period of goodwill with James I, during which he was made a baronet, Cotton's politics, based on his immersion in the documents, was essentially that "sacred obligation of the king to put his trust in parliaments" expressed in his published The Dangers wherein the Kingdom now standeth, and the Remedye (1628), which from the Court party's point-of-view was anti-royalist in nature; the authorities began to fear the uses being made of his library to support parliamentarian arguments: it was confiscated in 1630 and returned only after his death to his heirs.

Anne of Austria-1601-66-large


The Cottonian Library was the richest private collection of manuscripts ever amassed; of secular libraries it outranked the Royal library, the collections of the Inns of Court and the College of Arms; Cotton's house near the Palace of Westminster became the meeting-place of the Society of Antiquaries and of all the eminent scholars of England (DNB); it was eventually donated to the nation by Cotton's grandson and now resides at the British Library.

The physical arrangement of Cotton's Library continues to be reflected in citations to manuscripts once in his possession. His library was housed in a room 26 feet (7.9 m) long by six feet wide filled with bookpresses, each with the bust of a figure from classical antiquity on top. Counterclockwise, these are catalogued as Julius (i.e., Julius Caesar), Augustus, Cleopatra, Faustina, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian. (Domitian had only one shelf, perhaps because it was over the door.) Manuscripts are now designated by library, bookpress, and number: for example, the manuscript of Beowulf is designated Cotton Vitellius A.xv, and the manuscript of Pearl is Cotton Nero A.x.

Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke

Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England

Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke (6 August 1605 – 28 July 1675) was an English lawyer, writer, parliamentarian and Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England.

Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke (6 August 1605 – 28 July 1675) was an English lawyer, writer, parliamentarian and Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England.

Whitelocke lived at Fawley Court in Buckinghamshire and Chilton Park in Wiltshire. He married:

1. Rebecca, daughter of Thomas Bennet
2. Frances, daughter of Lord Willoughby of Parham
3. Mary Carleton, widow of Rowland Wilson

He left children by each of his wives.

Anne Hyde

Anne Hyde, Duchess of York, wife of James II, Mother of Queen Mary II and Queen Anne

Lady Anne Hyde (22 March 1638 – 31 March 1671) was the first wife of James, Duke of York (the future King James II of England and VII of Scotland), and the mother of two monarchs, Mary II of England and Scotland and Anne of Great Britain.

She was born on 12 March 1637 (Old Style) or 22 March 1638 (New Style)[1], at Windsor, Berkshire, to Frances, daughter of Sir Thomas Aylesbury, and to Sir Edward Hyde (later 1st Earl of Clarendon) of the Hyde of Norbury family.

In 1659, at Breda in the Netherlands, she allegedly married James, then Duke of York, in a secret ceremony. The royal family at this time remained in exile following the English Civil War, and Anne's father served as the loyal Royalist chief adviser to the prospective King Charles II of England, James's elder brother. Anne was Maid of Honour to Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, sister of Charles and James. It was during this time that James seduced Anne while she was in his sister's service and Charles forced the reluctant James to marry Anne, saying that her strong character would be a positive influence on his weak-willed brother.[2]

The couple went through an official marriage ceremony on 3 September 1660, in London, following the English Restoration of the monarchy. Anne was not a beautiful woman; in fact, Samuel Pepys slights her as being downright plain. But she was intelligent and witty. The French Ambassador described her as having "courage, cleverness, and energy almost worthy of a King's blood".[3]

Major Edward Clarke. Hij was de zoon van George Clarke en Anne Hyde


Anne's and James's first child, Charles, was born less than two months after their marriage, but died in infancy, as did five further sons and daughters. Only two daughters survived: Mary (born 30 April 1662) and Anne (born 6 February 1665). According to the Dictionary of National Biography, she gave birth to "her eighth child, a daughter, on 9 February 1671, but by now her fatal illness, probably breast cancer, was in an advanced stage."[4] A few weeks after the birth of their youngest child, Anne died of cancer at St. James's Palace and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Late in her life, the Duchess of York secretly converted to Catholicism, much to the horror of her staunchly Anglican family. After her death, circa 1672, her widower also converted to the Roman Catholic faith. At the order of James's older brother King Charles, however, James's and Anne's daughters received a Protestant education.


King James suffered deposition in a revolution against his Catholic rule in 1688, and Anne Hyde's daughter Mary and her son-in-law, William of Orange, jointly assumed the throne. After James, no British King or Queen has affirmed belief in the Catholic faith.

After Anne Hyde, no other English woman would marry an heir presumptive or heir apparent to the British throne until the marriage of Lady Diana Spencer to Charles, Prince of Wales in 1981.

by; after Pierre Lombart; Sir Peter Lely,print,1669

Koning James II als hertog van York met zijn vrouw, Anne Hyde, hertogin van York


Mary Villiers

Mary Villiers, Duchess of Richmond and Lennox, daughter George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham

Mary Stewart, Duchess of Richmond and Duchess of Lennox (1622–1685), formerly Lady Mary Villiers, was the daughter of the 1st Duke of Buckingham.

On 8 January 1634, at the age of 12, she married the 15-year-old Charles, Lord Herbert, eldest son of the 4th Earl of Pembroke and 1st Earl of Montgomery, but was widowed in 1635 when her young husband died of smallpox.

On 3 August 1637, she married the 4th Duke of Lennox, who was created Duke of Richmond in 1641.


They had two children:

* Esmé Stewart, 2nd Duke of Richmond and 5th Duke of Lennox
* Lady Mary Stewart, married the 1st Earl of Arran

After the death of her son, sometime before 1664, Mary married Colonel Thomas Howard (d. 1678) about whom little is known.

Maureen E. Mulvihill has built a case for Mary Villiers as the author of the poems published under the pseudonym Ephelia, including Female Poems...by Ephelia (1679).

Mary Sidney

Mary Sidney, Countess of Pembroke, niece of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester

Mary Herbert, Countess of Pembroke née Mary Sidney (27 October 1561 – 25 September 1621), was one of the first English women to achieve a major reputation for her literary works, translations and literary patronage.

Born at Tickenhill, Bewdley, in 1561, she was one of the three daughters of Sir Henry Sidney and Lady Mary Sidney née Dudley. Her mother was the daughter of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland and President of the King's Council under Edward VI executed for treason after the failure to make Jane Grey Queen of England, and was the eldest sister of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, favourite of Queen Elizabeth I. Mary Dudley is known to have written poetry. A year after her daughter Mary's birth, Mary Sidney (née Dudley) nursed Queen Elizabeth I through smallpox and was herself severely disfigured. Though her husband, Sir Henry Sidney, never repudiated her, she often lived separately from her family.

After the death of her sister, Ambrosia, at Ludlow Castle in 1576, fifteen year old Mary Sidney, as the only surviving Sidney daughter, was summoned to London by the Queen to be one of her noble attendants. In 1577, the Earl of Leicester, Robert Dudley arranged his niece's marriage to close ally, Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, then in his mid forties. At seventeen, Mary became the mistress of Wilton House near Salisbury and Baynard's Castle in London. Mary had four children, the first of whom, William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1580–1630), is possibly the young man described in Shakespeare's Sonnets. The other surviving child, Philip, became the 4th Earl of Pembroke on his brother's death in 1630. Mary Sidney's sons are the "Incomparable Pair", to whom William Shakespeare's First Folio is dedicated. At different times, both were patrons of the King's Men, Shakespeare's acting troupe.

Lady Lucy Percy,c.1610


Mary Sidney was highly educated by tutors, who included a female Italian teacher. Like her learned aunt Jane Grey, she was educated in the Reformed humanist tradition. In the 16th century, noblewomen required a good understanding of theological issues and were taught to read original texts. Mary was also schooled in poetry, music, French, the Classics, possibly in Hebrew and rhetoric, in needlework and practical medicine. She later translated Petrarch's "Triumph of Death" and many other European works. She had a keen interest in chemistry and set up a chemistry laboratory at Wilton House, run by Walter Raleigh's half-brother. She turned Wilton into a "paradise for poets", known as "The Wilton Circle" which included Edmund Spenser, Michael Drayton, Sir John Davies and Samuel Daniel, a salon-type literary group sustained by the Countess's hospitality. Her aim was to banish barbarism (an aim she shared with John Florio), by strengthening and classicising the English language and also by practising "true religion", which, in her view, combined Calvinism, devotion to Christ and acts of charity. She propagated Italian culture and literature. She was herself a Calvinist theologian. Her public persona (at least) was pious, virtuous and learned. She was celebrated for her singing of the psalms, her warmth, charm and beauty. In private, she was witty and, some reported, flirtatious. She ran safehouses for French reformed refugees.


Anne Hyde

Anne Hyde, Duchess of York, wife of James II, Mother of Queen Mary II and Queen Anne

Lady Anne Hyde (22 March 1638 – 31 March 1671) was the first wife of James, Duke of York (the future King James II of England and VII of Scotland), and the mother of two monarchs, Mary II of England and Scotland and Anne of Great Britain.

She was born on 12 March 1637 (Old Style) or 22 March 1638 (New Style)[1], at Windsor, Berkshire, to Frances, daughter of Sir Thomas Aylesbury, and to Sir Edward Hyde (later 1st Earl of Clarendon) of the Hyde of Norbury family.

Mary Kytson, Lady Darcy, 1583


In 1659, at Breda in the Netherlands, she allegedly married James, then Duke of York, in a secret ceremony. The royal family at this time remained in exile following the English Civil War, and Anne's father served as the loyal Royalist chief adviser to the prospective King Charles II of England, James's elder brother. Anne was Maid of Honour to Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, sister of Charles and James. It was during this time that James seduced Anne while she was in his sister's service and Charles forced the reluctant James to marry Anne, saying that her strong character would be a positive influence on his weak-willed brother.[2]

The Lomellis Children by anon.,c.1760


The couple went through an official marriage ceremony on 3 September 1660, in London, following the English Restoration of the monarchy. Anne was not a beautiful woman; in fact, Samuel Pepys slights her as being downright plain. But she was intelligent and witty. The French Ambassador described her as having "courage, cleverness, and energy almost worthy of a King's blood".[3]

Anne's and James's first child, Charles, was born less than two months after their marriage, but died in infancy, as did five further sons and daughters. Only two daughters survived: Mary (born 30 April 1662) and Anne (born 6 February 1665). According to the Dictionary of National Biography, she gave birth to "her eighth child, a daughter, on 9 February 1671, but by now her fatal illness, probably breast cancer, was in an advanced stage."[4] A few weeks after the birth of their youngest child, Anne died of cancer at St. James's Palace and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Anne Hyde, hertogin van York

Late in her life, the Duchess of York secretly converted to Catholicism, much to the horror of her staunchly Anglican family. After her death, circa 1672, her widower also converted to the Roman Catholic faith. At the order of James's older brother King Charles, however, James's and Anne's daughters received a Protestant education.

King James suffered deposition in a revolution against his Catholic rule in 1688, and Anne Hyde's daughter Mary and her son-in-law, William of Orange, jointly assumed the throne. After James, no British King or Queen has affirmed belief in the Catholic faith.

After Anne Hyde, no other English woman would marry an heir presumptive or heir apparent to the British throne until the marriage of Lady Diana Spencer to Charles, Prince of Wales in 1981.






Margaretha Tudor

Vader: Hendrik VII van Engeland Moeder: Elizabeth van York
Margaret Tudor (November 29, 1489 - October 18, 1541) was the eldest of two daughters of Henry VII of England, founder of the House of Tudor (1485-1553) and Elizabeth of York. Henry VIII was her younger brother.

Margaret Tudor married on August 8, 1503 in Holyrood House by James IV, King of Scotland from 1488 until his death at the Battle of Flodden on 9 September 1513. This marriage laid the groundwork for the union of England and Scotland in 1603 after the death of Elizabeth I. They had five children, but only their son James survived childhood. He was king from 1513 to 1542 but was only crowned in 1524 at age eleven, his mother until that time was regent. James V was also the father of Mary I Stuart, Queen of Scotland from 1542 to 1567.

On August 6, 1514 Margaret married Archibald Douglas (1490 - January 1557), the sixth Earl of Angus. This put bad blood with many other Scottish nobles. In a political climate dominated by transnational intrigue they knew the discontent of the people to exploit. A civil war resulted. The throne fell to John Stewart (1481 or 1484 - 2 July 1536), 2nd Duke of Albany, though a grandson of King James II, but as a refugee born in France. Margaret was in 1516 with her husband and children fled to Britain.


Frances Theresa Stuart,1666.

Lady Lucy Percy,c.1610


Mary Kytson, Lady_Darcy_1583

Anne of Austria painted circa 1625




Anna van Denemarken (1574-1619)
Vader: Frederik II van Denemarken
Moeder: Sophia van Mecklenburg-Güstrow

Anne of Denmark, Queen of England, wife of James I

Anne of Denmark (12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619) was queen consort of Scotland, England, and Ireland as the wife of King James VI and I.


Vader: Henry Stuart Darnley
Moeder: Maria Stuart

The second daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark, Anne married James in 1589 at the age of fourteen and bore him three children who survived infancy, including the future Charles I. She demonstrated an independent streak and a willingness to use factional Scottish politics in her conflicts with James over the custody of Prince Henry and his treatment of her friend Beatrix Ruthven. Anne appears to have loved James at first, but the couple gradually drifted and eventually lived apart, though mutual respect and a degree of affection survived.


In England, Anne shifted her energies from factional politics to patronage of the arts and constructed a magnificent court of her own, hosting one of the richest cultural salons in Europe. After 1612, she suffered sustained bouts of ill health and gradually withdrew from the centre of court life. Though she was reported to have died a Protestant, evidence suggests that she may have converted to Catholicism at some stage in her life.

Historians have traditionally dismissed Anne as a lightweight queen, frivolous and self-indulgent.[5] However, recent reappraisals acknowledge Anne's assertive independence and, in particular, her dynamic significance as a patron of the arts during the Jacobean age

Queen Henrietta Maria

Queen Henrietta Maria, Wife of King Charles I

Henrietta Maria of France, Queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (25 November[1] 1609 – 10 September 1669) was the consort of Charles I.

She was the mother of two kings, Charles II and James II, and was grandmother to Mary II, William III, and Anne of Great Britain.


Henriette-Marie de France was born the daughter of the King of France and Navarre, Henry IV; her mother was the Italian Marie de Medici and was the second consort of Henry IV. As the daughter of the king, she was a Fille de France. She was the youngest sister of the future King Louis XIII of France. Her father was killed before she was under a year old in Paris on 14 May 1610; her mother was banished from the royal court in 1617. From birth she was a member of the House of Bourbon, Maison de Bourbon in French.

Sister of Mary II, she ruled when her brother-in-law

She was born at the Palais du Louvre on 25 November 1609, but some historians give her a birthdate of 26 November. In England, where the Julian calendar was still in use, her date of birth is often recorded as 16 November. Henrietta Maria was brought up as a Roman Catholic.

After her older sister Christine Marie of France married the Sovereign Duke of Savoy in 1619, Henriette Marie took on the highly prestigious style of Madame Royale; this style was used by the most senior royal princess at the French court.

She first met her future husband while he was travelling to Spain to arrange a marriage with the Infanta Maria Anna of Spain; Charles met Henriette Marie in Paris en route. The trip however ended badly as the Spanish King Philip III demanded that Charles convert to Roman Catholicism and remain in Spain for a year after the wedding as a sort of hostage to ensure England's compliance with all the terms of the treaty. Charles was outraged, and upon their return in October, he and Buckingham demanded that King James declare war on Spain.

Charles then looked elsewhere for a bride. He looked to France where the attractive Henriette Marie lived at the court of her brother and was still unmarried by 1625.
p> - Queen Mary II, wife of William III in Tudors and Stuarts ...


This made her an unpopular choice of wife for the English King Charles I of England, whom she married by proxy on 11 May 1625, shortly after his accession to the throne.

They were married in person at St. Augustine's Church, Canterbury, Kent, on 13 June 1625. However, her religion made it impossible for her to be crowned with her husband in an Anglican service. Initially their relationship was rather frigid. Henrietta Maria had brought a large and expensive retinue with her from France, all of them Roman Catholic. It is said that eventually Charles sent them home to France, only allowing his teenage bride to retain her chaplain and confessor, Robert Phillip, and two ladies in waiting. Finding her sadly watching the retinue depart for France at the window of a palace, Charles angrily and forcibly dragged his wayward queen away.[citation needed]

Charles had intended to marry Maria Anna, a daughter of Philip III of Spain, but a mission to Spain in 1623 had failed. Perhaps this earlier disappointment explains why relations with his French bride were strained; every time the couple met, they started arguing and would separate, not seeing each other for weeks. When next they met, again they had to separate, because they could not stop arguing.

Henrietta Maria took an immediate dislike to George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, the King's favourite. However, after Buckingham's death in August 1628, her relationship with her husband, Charles I, improved and they finally forged deep bonds of love and affection. Her refusal to give up her Catholic faith alienated her from many of the people and certain powerful courtiers such as William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury and Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford. Charles, on the other hand, had definite leanings towards Catholicism, and, once he had reached maturity, did not share his father's sexual ambivalence.

Henrietta Maria increasingly took part in national affairs as the country moved towards open conflict through the 1630s. She despised Puritan courtiers to deflect a diplomatic approach to Spain and sought a coup to pre-empt the Parliamentarians. As war approached she was active in seeking funds and support for her husband, but her concentration on Catholic sources like Pope Urban VIII and the French angered many in England and hindered Charles' efforts. She was also sympathetic to her fellow Catholics and even gave a requiem in her private chapel at Somerset House for Father Richard Blount, S.J. upon his death in 1638.

In August 1642, when the conflict began, she was in Europe. She continued to raise money for the Royalist cause, and did not return to England until early 1643. She landed at Bridlington in Yorkshire with troops and arms, and joined the Royalist forces in northern England, making her headquarters at York. She remained with the army in the north for some months before rejoining the King at Oxford. The collapse of the king's position following Scottish intervention on the side of Parliament, and his refusal to accept stringent terms for a settlement led her to flee to France with her sons in July 1644. Charles was executed in 1649, leaving her almost destitute.

She settled in Paris, appointing as her chancellor the eccentric Sir Kenelm Digby. She angered both Royalists in exile and her eldest son by attempting to convert her youngest son, Henry, to Catholicism. She returned to England following the Restoration in October 1660 and lived as 'Dowager Queen' and 'Queen Mother' at Somerset House in London until 1665 when she returned permanently to France.

After her son's restoration she returned to England where Pepys, on 22 November 1660, met her and described her as a 'very little plain old woman, and nothing more in her presence in any respect nor garb than any ordinary woman'.

Her financial problems were resolved by a generous pension. She founded a convent at Chaillot, where she settled.

Anne of Austria


Ana (=Anna) María Mauricia, infanta of Spain and Portugal, archduchess of Austria, princess of Burgundy, was born in Valladolid in 1601. Her father was Philip III king of Spain, and her mother Margaret of Austria, sister of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II.

In 1661 she saw her youngest daughter Henrietta Anne[2] marry the Duke of Orléans, only sibling of Louis XIV; that marriage made Henrietta Maria the maternal line great grand mother of Louis XV of France and as such, a descendant of the present Juan Carlos I of Spain, as well as the Duke of Parma and reigning Grand Duke of Luxembourg.

Henrietta Maria died at Château de Colombes, and was buried in the royal tombs at Royal Basilica of Saint Denis near Paris. Her son in law the Duke of Orléans was buried there in 1701.

Sir Charles Blount, 1594

Sir Charles Blount (1568 - 1600) was a son of Sir Michael Blount and his wife Mary Moore.

Charles and his cousin and namesake Lord Mountjoy (the latter already being Captain of the Town and Isle of Portsmouth) became Freemen of Portsmouth on 26 December 1593.

Lord Mountjoy was a kinsman of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex both by blood and by marriage to his sister Penelope. This gained his cousin the Earl's patronage. Charles accompanied the Earl of Essex on a successful expedition to capture Cadiz in June 1596, after which he was knighted (probably one among the large number Essex knighted on board ship before returning the England - so many that the Queen complained), and to Ireland in 1599 (becoming "Coronell Governor" of Cahir Castle in Tipperary. He died in 1600 on the trip back to England, and was buried in St Thomas's Church, Portsmouth, now the city's cathedral, where his memorial may still be seen.

Henry Rich

Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland, son of Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick, and Penelope Devereux, great-great grandson of Mary Boleyn

Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland (baptized 19 August 1590 – 9 March 1649) was an English aristocrat, courtier and soldier.

He was the son of Robert Rich, 1st Earl of Warwick and of Penelope Devereux, Lady Rich, and the younger brother of Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick. He began his career as a courtier and soldier in 1610, swiftly becoming a favourite of King James I of England, but fell out of favour on the accession of Charles I. He was created Earl of Holland in 1624. He was the lover of Marie de Rohan.

Marie de Bethune, Duchesse de Rohan, 1628


On Sunday, 9 July 1648, seven months prior to the execution of King Charles, the Earl and his army of approximately 400 men entered St Neots in the county of Huntingdonshire. The Earl's men were hungry and weary, following their escape from Kingston upon Thames, where the Parliamentary forces had completely overwhelmed them. Of his original army of 500, the Earl escaped with around 100 horsemen and were immediately followed by a small party of Puritan and Parliamentary horsemen. After much hesitation regarding in which direction they should flee, the Earl decided on Northampton, and the group made their way via St Albans and Dunstable. Upon the outskirts of Bedford the group turned eastward towards St Neots town. En route from Kingston, the Earl was joined by the young Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of Peterborough. Colonel John Dalbier, an experienced soldier and Dutch national, had also joined them. The Roundheads hated Dalbier, as he had previously served with them under the 3rd Earl of Essex until taking up arms in favour of the Royalist cause.

The field officers of Holland’s force sought only rest and safety. Colonel Dalbier called a council of war, where many officers voted for dispersing into the surrounding countryside. Others suggested they should continue northwards. Colonel Dalbier advised on the strategic position of St Neots and the fact that the joint remnants of Buckingham and Holland’s forces had increased sufficiently since the retreat from the Roundheads at Kingston. He suggested they meet and engage their pursuers. He further added that, by obtaining a victory, the fortunes of war could be turned in their favour. Due to his vast experience as a soldier, his words were listened to with respect. He further offered to guard them through the night in case of a surprise attack, or meet the death of a soldier in the defence of the town. A vote was taken and Dalbier’s plan was adopted.

Remover of Charles from Hurst castle.


The Earl of Holland who, it was said, "had better faculty at public address than he had with a sword," joined the Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of Peterborough in addressing the principal residents and townsfolk of St Neots. Buckingham spoke at length, claiming "they did not wish to continue a bloody war, but wanted only a settled government under Royal King Charles." Assurances were also given that their Royalist troop would not riot or damage the townfolks’ property. Of the latter, it is recorded that they were faithful to their promise.

Fatigued by their battle and consequent retreat from Kingston, the field officers eagerly sought rest. Colonel Dalbier, true to his word, kept watch over them.

The small group of Puritan horsemen who had pursued them had, upon reaching Hertford, met with Colonel Scroope and his Roundhead troops from their detachment at Colchester.

At 2 o’clock on Monday morning, 10 July, one hundred Dragoons from the Parliament forces arrived ahead of the main army at Eaton Ford. Colonel Dalbier was at once informed, and immediately gave the alarm: "To horse, to horse!"

The Dragoons, equipped with musket and sword, crossed St Neots’ bridge before the Royalists were fully prepared. The Battle of St Neots had begun.

The few Royalists guarding the bridge quickly fell back from the superior numbers before them. The ensuing battle was now fought on the main square and streets of the town. The remaining Royalists were now fully prepared for combat. The main army of Roundheads had also arrived, and a further wave of Puritans crossed the bridge into town. The battle was fierce, with the Puritans gaining ground.

King Charles summonde to execution


King Charles summonde to executionColonel Dalbier died during the early stages of the battle. Other prominent Royalists, including Buckingham's younger brother Francis Villiers, and Kenelm Digby (son of the scientific writer of the same name), were also killed during the battle. Other officers and men drowned whilst attempting to escape by crossing the River Ouse. The young Duke of Buckingham, being overwhelmed by the speed of these events, escaped to Huntingdon with sixty horsemen, with the intention of continuing towards Lincolnshire. Upon realising the Roundheads were in hot pursuit, he changed plans, and via an evasive route returned to London from where he later escaped to France.

The Earl of Holland with his personal guard fought their way to the inn at which he had stayed the previous night. The gates had been closed and locked, but were quickly opened to admit him, and immediately closed again as he entered. The Parliamentarians soon battered them down and entered the inn. The door of the Earl’s room was burst open to reveal him facing them, sword in hand. It is recorded that he offered surrender of himself, his army and the town of St Neots, on condition that his life was spared.

Colonel Scroope killer of the mulaten elites in England


The Puritans seized the Earl and took him before Colonel Scroope, who ordered him to be shackled and imprisoned under guard. The remaining Royalist prisoners were locked in St Neots parish church overnight, then taken to Hitchin the following morning. The Earl and five other field officers were taken to Warwick Castle, which had remained a parliamentary stronghold throughout the war. They remained prisoners for the next six months, until their trial for high treason. In London it was said "His Lordship may spend time as well as he can and have leisure to repent his juvenile folly."

The Earl of Peterborough also escaped dressed as a gentleman merchant, but was later recognised and arrested. Friends aided their escape again whilst en route to London for trial. He then stayed at various safe houses, financed by his mother, until he managed to flee the country.

Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland


On 27 February 1649, the Earl of Holland was moved to London for trial. He pleaded his crime was not capital, and claimed that he had surrendered St Neots town on the condition that his life would be spared.

It was stated at the time that in 1643 Earl of Holland had joined Parliament and in the same year had changed sides and joined the Royalists. He was with them at the Battle of Chalgrove – Oxford – but stole away during a dark night before the close of battle. On 3 March the Earl was condemned as a traitor and was sentenced to death.

His brother, the Earl of Warwick, and the Countess of Warwick petitioned Parliament for his life, as did other ladies of rank. The Puritan Parliament divided its vote equally. The speaker gave the casting vote for the sentence to stand. The petition had succeeded only in deferring the execution for two days. The Earl was dangerously ill during these days and neither ate nor slept.

On the morning of his execution, 9 March, before Westminster Hall, the Earl walked unaided, but spoke to people along the way, declaring his surrender at St Neots was on condition that his life would be spared. At the scaffold he prayed. He then gave his forgiveness to the executioner and gave him what money he still had on his person, which was approximately ten pounds. Upon laying his head on the block, he signalled the executioner by stretching his arms outwards.

His head was severed by one stroke of the executioner’s axe. Very little blood flowed, due to his weakness, and the strong feeling was that, even had the execution not taken place, he probably would not have lived for long.

The second rising of the English Civil War had culminated in the Battle of Preston during August 1648, with the Roundheads marching two hundred and fifty miles in twenty six days through foul weather and conditions, to defeat and ensure the Royalists would never re-form as an army.

The townspeople of St Neots, who apparently were neutral during the entire conflict, continued their peaceful existence

Phillip Sidney

Phillip Sidney, nephew of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester

Born at Penshurst Place, Kent, he was the eldest son of Sir Henry Sidney and Lady Mary Dudley. His mother was the daughter of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, and the sister of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester. His younger sister, Mary Sidney, married Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke. Mary Sidney, whom upon her marriage became the Countess of Pembroke, was a writer, translator and literary patron. Sidney dedicated his longest work, the Arcadia, to her. After her brother's death, Mary Sidney Herbert reworked the Arcadia, now known as The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia.

Philip was educated at Shrewsbury School and Christ Church, Oxford. He was much travelled and highly learned. In 1572, he travelled to France as part of the embassy to negotiate a marriage between Elizabeth I and the Duc D'Alençon. He spent the next several years in mainland Europe, moving through Germany, Italy, Poland, and Austria. On these travels, he met a number of prominent European intellectuals and politicians.

Returning to England in 1575, Sidney met Penelope Devereux, the future Lady Rich; though much younger, she would inspire his famous sonnet sequence of the 1580s, Astrophel and Stella. Her father, the Earl of Essex, is said to have planned to marry his daughter to Sidney, but he died in 1576. In England, Sidney occupied himself with politics and art. He defended his father's administration of Ireland in a lengthy document. More seriously, he quarrelled with Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, probably because of Sidney's opposition to the French marriage, which de Vere championed. In the aftermath of this episode, Sidney challenged de Vere to a duel, which Elizabeth forbade. He then wrote a lengthy letter to the Queen detailing the foolishness of the French marriage. Characteristically, Elizabeth bristled at his presumption, and Sidney prudently retired from court.

Lettice Knollys, Groot-nicht van Anne Boleyn, de kleindochter van Maria Boleyn, circa 1590

A Memorial Miniature portait of King Charles I with a mica overlay, 1560

Sir Robert Sherley

Sir Robert Sherley, Adventurer and Envoy to the Court of James I from Shah 'Abbas, Iran

Sir Robert Shirley (c. 1581 – 13 July 1628) was an English traveler and adventurer, younger brother of Sir Anthony Shirley and of the adventurer Sir Thomas.

Robert went with his brother Anthony to Persia in 1598. Anthony was sent to the Safavid Persia from 1 December 1599 to May 1600, with 5,000 horses to train the Persian army according to the rules and customs of the English militia. He was also commanded to reform and retrain the artillery. When he left Persia, he left Robert behind with fourteen Englishmen, who remained in Persia for years. Having married Teresia (aka Teresa), a Circassian lady, he stayed in Persia until 1608, when Shah Abbas sent him on a diplomatic errand to James I and to other European princes, the Persian embassy to Europe (1609–1615). He was employed, as his brother had been, as ambassador to several princes of Christendom, for the purpose of uniting them in a confederacy against the Ottoman Empire.

Lady Juliana
When Sir Thomas Overbury’s Account of the Campden Wonder mentions William Harrison’s “mistress”, the lady in question was his employer as steward of the Campden estates, Lady Juliana , Countess Campden.

He went first to Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where he was entertained by Sigismund III Vasa. In June of that year he arrived in Germany, where he received the title of Earl (count palatine) and knight of the Roman Empire from the Emperor Rudolph II. Pope Paul V also conferred upon him the title of Earl. From Germany Sir Robert went to Florence and then Rome, where he entered on Sunday, 27 September 1609, attended by a suite of eighteen persons. He next visited Milan, and then proceeded to Genoa, whence he embarked to Spain, arriving in Barcelona in December 1609. He sent for his Persian wife and they remained in Spain, principally at Madrid, until the summer of 1611.

In 1613 he returned to Persia, but in 1615 he returned to Europe and lived in Madrid. In a pleasingly serendipitous meeting Shirley's caravan met Thomas Coryate, the eccentric traveller and travel writer (and attendant of Prince Henry's court in London), in the Persian desert in 1615. Shirley's third journey to Persia was undertaken in 1627, but soon after reaching the country he died at Qazvin.

Aphra Behn

Aphra Behn, and writer

Aphra Behn (July 10, 1640–April 16, 1689) was a prolific dramatist of the Restoration and was one of the first English professional female writers. Her writing participated in the amatory fiction genre of British literature.

The personal history of Aphra Behn, one of the first English women credited to earn their livelihood by authorship,[1] is difficult to unravel and relate. Information regarding her, especially her early life, is scant, but she was almost certainly born in Wye, near Canterbury, on July 10, 1640 to Bartholomew Johnson, a barber, and Elizabeth Denham. The two were married in 1638 and Aphra, or Eaffry, was baptized on December 14, 1640. Elizabeth Denham was employed as a nurse to the wealthy Colepeper family, who lived locally, which means that it is likely that Aphra grew up with and spent time with the family's children. The younger child, Thomas Colepeper, later described Aphra as his foster sister. In 1663 she visited an English sugar colony on the Suriname River, on the coast east of Venezuela (a region later known as Suriname). During this trip she is supposed to have met an African slave leader, whose story formed the basis for one of her most famous works, Oroonoko. The veracity of her journey to Suriname has often been called into question; however, enough evidence has been found to convince most Behn scholars today that the trip did indeed take place.

Though little is really known about Behn’s early years, evidence suggests that she may have had a Catholic upbringing. She once admitted that she was "designed for a nun" and the fact that she had so many Catholic connections, such as Henry Neville who was later arrested, would certainly have aroused suspicions during the anti-Catholic fervor of the 1680s (Goreau 243). Her sympathy to the Catholics is further demonstrated by her dedication of her play "The Rover II" to the Catholic Duke of York who had been exiled for the second time (247).


Behn was firmly dedicated to the restored King Charles II. As political parties first emerged during this time, Behn was a Tory supporter. Tories believed in absolute allegiance to the king, who governed by divine right (246). Behn often used her writings to attack the parliamentary Whigs claiming "In public spirits call’d, good o’ th’ Commonwealth…So tho’ by different ways the fever seize…in all ’tis one and the same mad disease." This was Behn’s reproach to parliament which had denied the king funds. Like most Tories, Behn was distrustful of Parliament and Whigs since the Revolution and wrote propaganda in support of the restored monarchy (248).

Shortly after her return to England in 1664 Aphra Johnson married Johan Behn, who was a merchant of German or Dutch extraction. Little conclusive information is known about their marriage, but it did not last for more than a few years. Some scholars believe that the marriage never existed and Behn made it up purely to gain the status of a widow, which would have been much more beneficial for what she was trying to achieve. She was reportedly bisexual, and held a larger attraction to women than to men, a trait that, coupled with her writings and references of this nature, would eventually make her popular in the writing and artistic communities of the 20th century and present day.[2][3][4]

Thomas Culpepper


By 1666 Behn had become attached to the Court, possibly through the influence of Thomas Culpepper and other associates of influence, where she was recruited as a political spy to Antwerp by Charles II. Her code name for her exploits is said to have been Astrea, a name under which she subsequently published much of her writings. The Second Anglo-Dutch War had broken out between England and the Netherlands in 1665.[3] She became the lover to a prominent and powerful royal, and from him she obtained political secrets to be used to the English advantage.[3]


Behn's exploits were not profitable, however, as Charles was slow in paying (if he paid at all) for either her services or her expenses whilst abroad. Money had to be borrowed for Behn to return to London, where a year's petitioning of Charles for payment went unheard, and she ended up in a debtor's prison. By 1669 an undisclosed source had paid Behn's debts, and she was released from prison, starting from this point to become one of the first women who wrote for a living. She cultivated the friendship of various playwrights, and starting in 1670 she produced many plays and novels, as well as poems and pamphlets. Her most popular works included The Rover, Love-Letters Between a Nobleman and His Sister, and Oroonoko. Amongst her notable critics was Alexander Pope, against whom she has been defended.

Aphra Behn died on April 16, 1689, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Below the inscription on her tombstone read the words: "Here lies a Proof that Wit can never be / Defence enough against Mortality."[5] She was quoted as once stating that she had led a "life dedicated to pleasure and poetry."

Sir John Cheke

Sir John Cheke, tutor of Edward VI and the man who identified the individuals he had known who were sketched by Hans Holbein

Sir John Cheke (16 June 1514 – 13 September 1557) was an English classical scholar and statesman, notable as the first Regius Professor of Greek at Cambridge University.


The son of Peter Cheke, esquire-bedell of Cambridge University, he was educated at St John's College, Cambridge, where he became a fellow in 1529.[1] While there he adopted the principles of the Reformation. His learning gained him an exhibition from the king, and in 1540, on Henry VIII's foundation of the regius professorships, he was elected to the chair of Greek. Amongst his pupils at St John's were William Cecil, later Lord Burghley, who married Cheke's sister Mary, and Roger Ascham, who in The Scholemaster gives Cheke the highest praise for scholarship and character. Together with Sir Thomas Smith, he introduced a new method of Greek pronunciation very similar to that commonly used in England in the 19th century. It was strenuously opposed in the University, where the continental method prevailed, and Bishop Gardiner, as chancellor, issued a decree against it (June 1542); but Cheke ultimately triumphed.

Robert Devereux

Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, great-grandson of Mary Boleyn

Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (10 November 1565[1] – 25 February 1601), is the best-known of the many holders of the title "Earl of Essex." He was a military hero and royal favourite of Elizabeth I, but following a poor campaign against Irish rebels during the Nine Years' War in 1599, he failed in a coup d'état against the queen and was executed for treason.

Essex was born on 10 November 1565 at Netherwood near Bromyard, in Herefordshire, the son of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex and Lettice Knollys. His maternal great-grandmother Mary Boleyn was a sister of Anne Boleyn, mother of Queen Elizabeth I, making him a cousin of the Queen, and there were rumours that his grandmother, Catherine Carey, a close friend of Queen Elizabeth's, was Henry VIII's illegitimate daughter.[3]

Catherine Carey


He was brought up on his father's estates at Chartley Castle, Staffordshire and at Lamphey, Pembrokeshire in Wales and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge.[4] His father died in 1576, The new Earl of Essex became a ward of Lord Burghley. On 21 September 1578 his mother married Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Elizabeth I's long-standing favourite and Robert Devereux's godfather.[5]

Essex performed military service under his stepfather in the Netherlands, before making an impact at court and winning the Queen's favour. In 1590 he married Frances Walsingham, daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham and widow of Sir Philip Sidney, by whom he was to have several children, three of whom survived into adulthood. Sidney, Leicester's nephew, died at the Battle of Zutphen in which Essex also distinguished himself.

Koning Charles I, zijn vrouw, koningin Henrietta Maria, en twee van hun kinderen

Sophie of Hanover

Sophie of Hanover, daughter of Elizabeth Stuart, granddaughter of Mary, Queen of Scots and daughter of King James I

Sophia of Hanover (properly Electress of Brunswick-Lüneburg; born Sophia, Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, of the House of Wittelsbach, the "Winter King" of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. She is frequently referred to as the Duchess Sophia, particularly when the text also is discussing her niece and future daughter-in-law, who is referred to as Princess Sophia.

Through the Act of Settlement 1701, an Act of the Westminster Parliament which changed the normal laws of inheritance to the English and Irish thrones, Sophia was declared the heiress presumptive to her first cousin once removed, Queen Anne of England and Ireland (later Queen of Great Britain and Ireland). Sophia was never declared heiress presumptive to Scotland.

She would have acceded to Anne's crown, had she not died a few weeks before Anne did. Upon Sophia's death, her son George Louis, Elector of Hanover and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, became heir presumptive. Upon Queen Anne's death, he became King George I.


As the mother of George I therefore, Sophia is the legislative linchpin ancestor of the House of Hanover line of succession to the British throne and their modern descendants of the House of Windsor. Her grandfather was James I & VI of England and Scotland and her uncle was Charles I of England and Scotland. As Electress, Sophia was the consort to Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover until his death in 1698.

Sophie van Hannover

Sophia was born in exile in The Hague (the exile was because her father had been defeated at the Battle of White Mountain) and she was the youngest of the five daughters of Frederick V, Elector Palatine and Elizabeth Stuart. She was brought up in Leiden until moving back to her mother's court at The Hague in 1641. Her mother later suggested she marry their neighbour, the exiled Charles II, but Sophia was not interested in marrying her first cousin, and went to live with her brother, Charles I Louis (the new Elector Palatine, who had recently been restored to his lands) in Herrenhausen in 1650.[2]

Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate


In 1657 Sophia's niece Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate came to live with Sophia. Sophia was Elizabeth Charlotte's youngest aunt; the young Elizabeth Charlotte married the only brother of Louis XIV of France in 1671; Elizabeth Charlotte, later known as Madame at court, would write long letters to her aunt describing the court of Louis XIV.

Before her marriage, Sophia, as the daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine of the Rhine, was referred to as Sophie, Princess Palatine of the Rhine, or as Sophia of the Palatinate.

On 30 September 1658, Sophia married Ernst August, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, at Heidelberg, who in 1692 became the first Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Electors were princes who had the right to vote to elect the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Ernst August was a second cousin of Sophia's mother Elizabeth Stuart, as they were both great grandchildren of Christian III of Denmark.

Sophie van Hannover

Sophia became a friend and admirer of Gottfried Leibniz while he was a courtier to the House of Brunswick, from 1676 until his death in 1716, and a librarian at Hanover. This friendship resulted in a substantial correspondence, first published in the nineteenth century (Klopp 1973), that reveals Sophia to have been a woman of exceptional intellectual ability and curiosity. She was well read in the works of Rene Descartes and Baruch Spinoza. She encouraged her husband, brother and sons to read Spinoza and popularized his works at court.4

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz


Sophia commissioned significant work on the Herrenhausen Gardens surrounding the palace at Herrenhausen, where she died.

The English crown, in the default of legitimate issue from Mary II, William III and Anne, was settled upon "the most excellent princess Sophia, electress and duchess-dowager of Hanover" and "the heirs of her body, being Protestant". The key excerpt from the Settlement, naming Sophia as heiress presumptive reads:


Therefore for a further Provision of the Succession of the Crown in the Protestant Line We Your Majesties most dutifull and Loyall Subjects the Lords Spirituall and Temporall and Commons in this present Parliament assembled do beseech Your Majesty that it may be enacted and declared and be it enacted and declared by the Kings most Excellent Majesty by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spirituall and Temporall and Comons in this present Parliament assembled and by the Authority of the same That the most Excellent Princess Sophia Electress and Dutchess Dowager of Hannover Daughter of the most Excellent Princess Elizabeth late Queen of Bohemia Daughter of our late Sovereign Lord King James the First of happy Memory be and is hereby declared to be the next in Succession in the Protestant Line to the Imperiall Crown and Dignity of the forsaid Realms of England France and Ireland with the Dominions and Territories thereunto belonging after His Majesty and the Princess Anne of Denmark and in Default of Issue of the said Princess Anne and of His Majesty respectively.


Sophia plays an important role in British history and royal lineage. As a daughter of Elizabeth Stuart and granddaughter of James I of England, VI of Scotland, she was the closest Protestant relative to William III (king of England and Scotland by marriage and by being the son of Princess Mary, daughter of Charles I), after his childless sister-in-law, Princess Anne, the heiress presumptive. In 1701, the Act of Settlement made her Anne's heiress presumptive for the purpose of cutting off any claim by the Catholic James Francis Edward Stuart, who would otherwise have become James III, as well as denying the throne to many other Catholics and spouses of Catholics who held a claim. The act restricts the British throne to the "Protestant heirs" of Sophia of Hanover who have never been Catholic and who have never married a Catholic.

John Thurloe

John Thurloe, spymaster for Oliver Cromwell

John Thurloe[1] (June 1616- 21 February 1668) was a secretary to the council of state in Protectorate England and spymaster for Oliver Cromwell.

Thurloe was born in Essex in 1616 and was baptised on June 12. His father was Thomas Thurloe, rector of Abbot's Roding. He was trained as a lawyer in Lincoln's Inn. He was first in the service of Oliver St John, and, in January 1645, became a secretary to the parliamentary commissioners at the Treaty of Uxbridge. In 1647 Thurloe was admitted to Lincoln's Inn as a member. He remained on the sidelines during the English Civil War but after the accession of Oliver Cromwell, became part of his government in 1652 he was named a secretary for state.


In 1653 he became head of intelligence and developed a widespread network of spies in England and on the continent. These included the Dutch diplomat and historian Lieuwe van Aitzema, the mathematician John Wallis, who established a code-breaking department, and diplomat and mathematician Samuel Morland, who served as Thurloe's assistant. Thurloe's service broke the Sealed Knot, a secret society of Royalists and uncovered various other plots against the Protectorate. In 1654 he was elected to Parliament as the member for Ely. He supported the idea that Cromwell should adopt a royal title.


In 1656 Thurloe took charge of the post office. His spies were then able to intercept mail, and he exposed Edward Sexby's 1657 plot to assassinate Cromwell and captured would-be assassin Miles Sindercombe and his group. (Ironically, Thurloe's own department was also infiltrated: in 1659 Morland became a Royalist agent and alleged that Thurloe, Richard Cromwell and Sir Richard Willis - a Sealed Knot member turned Cromwell agent - were plotting to kill the future King Charles II.)

Keizer Leopold I, Germany

In 1657 Thurloe became a member of Cromwell's second council, as well as governor of the London Charterhouse school, and in 1658 he became chancellor of the University of Glasgow. After the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, he supported his son Richard Cromwell as Lord Protector and, in 1659, represented Cambridge University in the Third Protectorate Parliament. Later that year various parties accused him of arbitrary decisions as head of intelligence, and he was deprived of his offices. Reinstated as a secretary of state in February 27 1660, he resisted the return of Charles II.

Keizer Leopold I, Germany

After the Restoration, Thurloe was arrested for high treason on May 15, 1660, but was not tried. He was released on June 29 on the condition that he would assist the new government upon request. He retired from public life but served as a behind-the-scenes authority on foreign affairs and wrote informative papers for Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, but he did not become part of any new government.

John Thurloe died in February 21, 1668 in his chambers in Lincoln's Inn and was buried in the chapel. His correspondence is kept in the Bodleian Library, Oxford and in the British Museum. Thomas Birch published part of it in 1742.

Edward Hyde

Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, maternal grandfather of Queen Mary II and Queen Anne

Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 1609 – 9 December 1674) was an English historian and statesman, and grandfather of two British monarchs, Mary II and Queen Anne.

Hyde was the third son of Henry Hyde of Dinton and Purton, Wiltshire, a member of a family for some time established at Norbury, Cheshire. He was initially educated at Gillingham School, and entered Magdalen Hall, Oxford, (now Hertford College, Oxford, where his portrait hangs in the hall) in 1622, having been rejected by Magdalen College, and graduated BA in 1626. Intended originally for holy orders in the Church of England, the death of two elder brothers made him his father's heir, and in 1625 he entered the Middle Temple to study law. His abilities were more conspicuous than his industry, and at the bar his time was devoted more to general reading and to the society of eminent scholars and writers than to the study of law treatises.


This time was not wasted. In later years Clarendon declared "next the immediate blessing and providence of God Almighty" that he "owed all the little he knew and the little good that was in him to the friendships and conversation...of the most excellent men in their several kinds that lived in that age." These included Ben Jonson, Selden, Waller, Hales, and especially Lord Falkland; and from their influence and the wide reading in which he indulged, he doubtless drew the solid learning and literary talent which afterwards distinguished him.


In 1629 he married his first wife, Anne, daughter of Sir George Ayliffe of Grittenham, who died six months afterwards; and secondly, in 1634, Frances, daughter of Sir Thomas Aylesbury, Master of Requests. From this second marriage came a daughter, Anne. In 1633 he was called to the bar, and obtained quickly a good position and practice. His marriages had gained for him influential friends, and in December 1634 he was made keeper of the writs and rolls of the common pleas; while his able conduct of the petition of the London merchants against Portland earned Laud's approval.


In 1640 Hyde was returned to the Short Parliament and then again in the Long Parliament, he was at first a moderate critic of King Charles I, but gradually moved over towards the royalist side, championing the Church of England and opposing the execution of the Earl of Strafford, Charles's primary advisor. Following the Grand Remonstrance of 1641, Hyde became an informal advisor to the King.

Edward Montag

Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester

Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester KG, KB, FRS (1602 – 5 May 1671) was an important commander of Parliamentary forces in the First English Civil War, and for a time Oliver Cromwell's superior.


He was the eldest son of the 1st Earl by his first wife, Catherine Spencer, granddaughter of Sir William Spencer of Yarnton, Oxfordshire, England, was born in 1602, and was educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge (1618-22).


Montagu accompanied Prince Charles during his 1623 trip to Habsburg Spain in pursuit of the Spanish Match. He was Member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire in the "Happy Parliament" of 1623-24, the "Useless Parliament" of 1625, and the Parliament of 1625-26. At the time of Charles I's coronation in February 1626, he was made a Knight of the Bath to reward him for his service to Charles in Spain. In May, with help from George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, Montagu was elevated to the House of Lords, receiving his father's barony of Kimbolton and being styled Viscount Mandeville as a courtesy title, since his father had been created earl of Manchester in February when Parliament convened.

His first wife, who was related to the Duke of Buckingham, having died in 1625 after two years of marriage, Mandeville married in 1626 Anne, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Warwick.

Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia "Winter Queen"


The influence of his father-in-law, who was afterwards admiral on the side of the parliament, drew Mandeville to the popular side in the questions in dispute with the crown, and at the beginning of the Long Parliament he was one of the recognized leaders of the popular party in the Upper House, his name being joined with those of the five members of the House of Commons impeached by the king in 1642. At the outbreak of the Civil War, having succeeded his father in the earldom in November 1642, Manchester commanded a regiment in the army of Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, and in August 1643 he was appointed Major-General of the parliamentary forces in the eastern counties (the Eastern Association), with Cromwell as his second in command. He soon appointed his Provost-Marshall, William Dowsing, as a paid iconoclast, touring the churches of Suffolk and Cambridgeshire destroying all "Popish" and "superstitious" imagery, as well as features such as altar-rails.

Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia "Winter Queen"

Having become a member of the Committee of Both Kingdoms in 1644, he was in supreme command at Marston Moor but in the subsequent operations his lack of energy brought him into disagreement with Cromwell, and in November 1644 he strongly expressed his disapproval of continuing the war. Cromwell brought the shortcomings of Manchester before Parliament in the autumn of 1644 and in April the following year, anticipating the Self-denying Ordinance, Manchester resigned his command. He took a leading part in the frequent negotiations for an arrangement with Charles, was custodian with William Lenthall of the Great Seal from 1646 to 1648, and frequently presided in the House of Lords. He opposed the trial of the king, and retired from public life during the Commonwealth but after the Restoration, which he actively assisted, he was loaded with honours by Charles II. In 1667 he was made a General, and he died on 5 May 1671. Manchester was made a Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1661, and became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1667.


Men of such divergent sympathies as Baxter, Burnet and Clarendon agreed in describing Manchester as a lovable and virtuous man, who loved peace and moderation both in politics and religion. He was five times married, leaving children by two of his wives, and was succeeded in the title by his eldest son, Robert, 3rd Earl of Manchester (1634–1683). One of his daughters went on to become Lady Anne Montagu

Elizabeth Stuart


Frederick V, Elector of Palatine, his wife, Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I, and their son Charles

On 14 February 1613, Princess Elizabeth married Frederick V, then Elector of the Palatinate in Germany, and took up her place in the court at Heidelberg. Frederick was the leader of the association of Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire known as the Evangelical Union, and Elizabeth was married to him in an effort to increase James's ties to these princes. In 1619, Frederick was offered and accepted the crown of Bohemia. Elizabeth was crowned Queen of Bohemia on 7 November 1619, three days after her husband was crowned King of Bohemia. Frederick's rule was extremely brief, and thus Elizabeth became known as the "Winter Queen".

Driven into exile, the couple took up residence in The Hague, and Frederick died in 1632. Elizabeth remained in Holland even after her son, Charles I Louis, regained his father's electorship in 1648. Following the Restoration of the English and Scottish monarchies, she travelled to London to visit her nephew, Charles II, and died while there.

Henrietta Maria of France, Queen of Charles I of England, Ireland, and Scotland


Catherine of Braganza, Queen of Charles II of England, Ireland , and Scotland


Mary of Modena, Queen of James II of England, Ireland, Scotland


Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen of George III of the UK



Maria van Oostenrijk (1528 - 1603).

Maria van Oostenrijk (1528 - 1603). Heilige Roomse keizerin van 1562 tot haar man overleed in 1576. Ze was getrouwd met Maximiliaan II.


Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia "Winter Queen"


Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia "Winter Queen"


Bianca Maria Sforza, Holy Roman Empress


Eleonor Magdalena van Neuburg (1655 - 1720).

Eleonor Magdalena van Neuburg (1655 - 1720). Heilige Roomse keizerin van 1676 tot haar man overleed in 1705. Zij was de derde vrouw van Leopold I.

Eleanor of Austria,(1630 - 1686). Queen of Portugal and France

Eleonora Gonzaga (1630 - 1686). Heilige Roomse keizerin vanaf 1651 tot haar man overleed in 1657. Zij was de derde vrouw van Ferdinand III.

Eleonora Gonzaga (1598 - 1655).


Eleonora Gonzaga (1598 - 1655). Heilige Roomse keizerin van 1622 tot haar man overleed in 1637. Ze was getrouwd met Ferdinand II.

Eleonora van Portugal (1434-1467).


Eleonora van Portugal (1434-1467). Heilige Roomse keizerin van 1452 tot aan haar dood in 1467. Ze was getrouwd met Frederik III.



Isabella Clara Eugenia (1566-1633), dochter van koning Filips II en zijn derde vrouw, Elizabeth Valois,

Elizabeth of Valois, 3rd Wife of Philip II of Spain


Queen Anne van Denemarken

Anne of Denmark (12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619) was queen consort of Scotland, England, and Ireland as the wife of King James VI and I.

The second daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark, Anne married James in 1589 at the age of fourteen and bore him three children who survived infancy, including the future Charles I. She demonstrated an independent streak and a willingness to use factional Scottish politics in her conflicts with James over the custody of Prince Henry and his treatment of her friend Beatrix Ruthven. Anne appears to have loved James at first, but the couple gradually drifted and eventually lived apart, though mutual respect and a degree of affection survived.

In England, Anne shifted her energies from factional politics to patronage of the arts and constructed a magnificent court of her own, hosting one of the richest cultural salons in Europe. After 1612, she suffered sustained bouts of ill health and gradually withdrew from the centre of court life. Though she was reported to have died a Protestant, evidence suggests that she may have converted to Catholicism at some stage in her life.

Historians have traditionally dismissed Anne as a lightweight queen, frivolous and self-indulgent.[5] However, recent reappraisals acknowledge Anne's assertive independence and, in particular, her dynamic significance as a patron of the arts during the Jacobean age.

Mary, Queen of Scots, great-greanddaughter of Princess Margaret Tudor


Maria of Austria and her daughter Maria Eleanor

Maria of Austria and her daughter Maria Eleanore, great nieces of Catherine of Aragon and wife and daughter of William of Cleves, brother of Anne of Cleves

Maria of Austria (1531 - 1581), daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary.

She married Wilhelm, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg on July 18, 1546. In this portrait, Maria Eleanor's resemblance to both Juana of Castile and Catherine of Aragon as children is amazing.


Elizabeth of Valois, 3rd Wife of Philip II of Spain


ady Catherine Grey

Lady Catherine Grey, sister of Jane Grey, granddaughter of Princess Mary Tudor

Lady Catherine Grey (sometimes spelled "Katherine") ( 25 August 1540 - 26 January 1568), Countess of Hertford, was the second surviving daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Lady Frances Brandon. She was the younger sister of Lady Jane Grey and older sister of Lady Mary Grey. She was born at Bradgate Park in the vicinity of Leicester.

Her maternal grandparents were Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Mary Tudor, former Queen consort of France. Mary was the daughter of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York and the younger sister of Henry VIII of England.

Catherine was married to Henry Herbert, son of William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke at Durham House on 21 May 1553, the same day as her sister Jane was married to Guilford Dudley. After the wedding, Catherine went to live with her husband at Baynard's Castle on the Thames.

Jane Grey was the designated heir of Edward VI of England, son of Henry VIII by his third queen consort, Jane Seymour. Edward VI died on 6 July 1553 and Jane was proclaimed Queen regnant on 10 July. Edward VI had removed his older half-sisters Mary, daughter of Henry VIII by Catherine of Aragon, and Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII by Anne Boleyn, from the line of succession.

Jane was deposed in favour of Mary on 19 July 1553. The Earl of Pembroke sought to distance himself from the Grey family and cast out Catherine from his home and had her unconsummated marriage annulled.

The deposed Queen was executed on 12 February 1554. Mary continued to reign until her natural death on 17 November 1558. She was also the second queen consort of Philip II of Spain. Mary died childless and was succeeded by her younger half-sister, Elizabeth.

Elizabeth was herself unwed and childless. The matter of her succession would bring Catherine Grey to relative prominence. As a granddaughter of Mary Tudor and great-granddaughter of Henry VII, Catherine had a valid claim to the throne of the Kingdom of England. In fact, under Henry VIII's will she could claim to be next-in-line to the throne and was therefore as significant a threat to Queen Elizabeth as Jane had been to Queen Mary. However, at one point the queen seemed to be warming to Catherine, as a potential Protestant heir, and it was rumoured that she was considering adopting her.

During her time at the court of Queen Mary, Catherine had become friendly with Jane Seymour, daughter of Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset and niece of Henry VIII's third wife. Through Jane, Catherine met her brother Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, and fell in love with him. In December 1560, Lady Catherine secretly married Edward Seymour. The wedding was conducted at Edward's house in Canon Row, and Jane Seymour was the only witness. There is no formal record of the marriage, which was considered invalid since Catherine did not have the Queen's official permission to wed.

Queen Elizabeth sent Edward away to France with Thomas Cecil, eldest son of William Cecil. The two were to tour Europe in order to improve their education. Seymour provided his wife with a document that would, in the event of his death, allow her to prove the marriage and inherit his property. Catherine, however, lost the document. Thus, when the always frail Jane Seymour died of tuberculosis, Catherine was not only left alone and friendless at court, she also had no means of proving that she was married.

Catherine concealed the marriage from everyone for months, even after she became pregnant; in her eighth month of pregnancy and on progress with the court in Ipswich, she saw no choice but to seek help from influential court members. She first confided in Bess of Hardwick, Lady Saintloe; however, Bess, frightened that both she and Catherine would possibly be condemned to death for such treachery, not only refused to aid Catherine but also berated the unfortunate girl for having implicated her. Catherine then secretly visited Robert Dudley, brother-in-law to her dead sister Jane, in his bedroom at night and pleaded with him for help. Dudley also refused to help her and then, fearful of the Queen discovering the visit and suspecting an affair, he immediately told Elizabeth everything he knew.

Elizabeth was greatly angered that her cousin, being so close in line to the throne, had married anyone without her permission, and also did not approve of her choice of husband. Catherine was imprisoned in the Tower of London, where Edward joined her on his return to England. Even Bess of Hardwick was imprisoned, as Elizabeth became convinced that the marriage was part of a wider conspiracy against herself.

The marriage was annulled in 1562 but resulted in two children, both of whom were born in the Tower :

* Edward Seymour, Lord Beauchamp of Hache (1561–1612).
* Thomas Seymour (born 1563).

Lady Catherine died at Cockfield Hall [1] on 26 January 1568 at the age of 27 of consumption and was buried in the Cockfield Chapel in Yoxford church in Suffolk. Her children were regarded as ineligible to succeed to the throne because of the annulled marriage, which technically rendered them illegitimate. However, in the reigns of Elizabeth I and later James I of England they were courted as potential heirs to the Crown.

Elizabeth of Valois, 3rd Wife of Philip II of Spain

Queen Elizabeth, c.1565.

Elizabeth I, Queen of England, daughter of Anne Boleyn




A sketch from life of Mary I for a stained glass window

Elizabeth Knollys, granddaughter of Mary Boleyn, great niece of Anne Boleyn


Margaret Stuart, Lady Mennes, great-great


King Henry VIII and his fanely

Henry VIII, and his fool, Will Somers, Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I

The Children of Henry VIII, c.1650-1680. Copy of a lost original, c.1545-1550.
© The Duke of Buccleuch, Boughton House.

According to the BBC, "The portrait, dating from 1650 to 1680, was found in the Duke of Buccleuch's collection at Boughton House.

It shows Elizabeth with siblings Edward VI and Mary I, father Henry VIII and his jester, Will Somers.

It is a copy of an original panel painting, which is thought to date back to the early 1550s.

The portrait was examined by historians Alison Weir and Tracy Borman after they were told of its existence by the director of Boughton House.

It will now be put on display at the stately home, and historians hope to trace the original through publicising the discovery.

Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I before her accession to the throne are extremely rare, with only two other proven portraits known - one at Hampton Court and the other at Windsor Castle.

Mystery

Tracy Borman said that when she was first sent a picture of the portrait she realised it had never been seen before.

"The more we found out, the more obvious it was that nobody had come across this," she said.

"It's clearly a copy of a lost original and it's that mystery that we started to try to solve.
Mary Queen of Scots

"It's also a very different look to Elizabeth and comparing it to other portraits it helps us to solve the identity of other portraits - for example one always known as the Unknown Lady in the National Portrait Gallery."

Charles Lister, house manager at Boughton House, said the picture was to go on public display when the house opens in August.

He said: "The portrait is normally in a private area of the house with a number of other Tudor portraits.

"When we had a meeting with Tracy it came under discussion and it sort of all went from there.

"We knew it was important because it's a picture of Henry VIII and his family but we did not realise it in the context of Elizabeth as princess."


Mary Queen of Scots in Captivity

King Charles II of England


Queen Christina and Rene Descartes


Marie Antoinette at 13


Anne of Austria, Queen Consort of Louis XIII of France


Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen of the United Kingdom


Queen Charlotte in 1767 wth her eldest daughter Charlotte, Princess Royal
Queen Charlotte, consort of King George III, by studio of Allan Ramsay in 1762


Princess of Wales, Princess Alexandra in her mid-forties by W & D Downey taken around 1889



Princess Alexandra (right) with her mother Princess Louise of Hesse-Cassel (center) and her eldest daughter Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife, Louise (left).

Marie Antoinette at the age of twelve


Marie Antoinette

Marie Antoinette - Wife of King Louis XVI and Queen Consort of France and Navarre from 1774 to 1792

Margaret of Valois at age 19 years


Margaret of Valois

Margaret of Valois - Wife of King Henry IV and Queen Consort of France and Navarre from 1589 to 1599


Princess Mary of Teck in 1893, shortly before her marriage to Prince George, the Duke of York


Marie de Medici, Queen of France


Mary, Queen of Scots


Margaret Beaufort

Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII, Grandmother of Arthur, Margaret, Henry, and Mary Tudor

Margaret was born at Bletsoe Castle, Bedfordshire, the daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset and Margaret Beauchamp of Bletso. Her mother was the widow of Sir Oliver St John and daughter of John, 3rd Beauchamp of Bletso and Edith, daughter of Sir John Stourton.

Through her father, Lady Margaret Beaufort was a granddaughter of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, and a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and his mistress and third wife Katherine Swynford.

Following Gaunt's marriage to Katherine, their children (the Beauforts) were legitimized, but the legitimation carried a condition: their descendants were barred from ever inheriting the throne. Despite this, Lady Margaret's own son King Henry VII (and several English, British, and UK sovereigns who followed) are descended from Gaunt and Swynford.

* Edward IV and his younger brother Richard III of England were sons of Cecily Neville, grandsons to Joan Beaufort, great-grandsons to John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford.


* Lady Margaret Beaufort's only son Henry, through her a great-great-grandson of the Gaunt-Swynford liaison, became King Henry VII.
Margaret, less than two years old when her father died, was brought up by her mother until the age of six when the powerful Duke of Suffolk obtained her wardship and betrothed her to his seven-year-old son and heir. However, Suffolk was executed soon after, and the match was dissolved by Henry VI (who was her second cousin).

Henry chose her as a suitable bride for his half-brother, Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond. Edmund was the eldest son of the king's mother, Dowager Queen Catherine (the widow of Henry V), by her second marriage to Owen Tudor. Queen Catherine had been born Catherine of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France.


Thus, in what is sometimes considered one of the great ironies of history, Margaret's son Henry, the Lancastrian claimant to the throne at the end of the Wars of the Roses — who stabilised the kingdom and united the two houses by marrying the Yorkist princess Elizabeth of York — had plenty of royal blood but no legal claim to the English throne. In fact, were it not for the Salic Law barring women from inheriting the French throne, he would have had a greater claim to the crown of France than that of England, through his paternal line, because his father Edmund's mother, Queen Catherine of England, was a princess of France.

However, it was his maternal line on which his English claim relied. In addition, as Henry derived his claim to the English throne from his mother Margaret, and England did not bar women from inheriting the kingship, it is arguably she and not her son who should have claimed the crown. Margaret did not contest Henry's right to rule; however, she occasionally used the signature Margaret R, a form limited to queens regnant. (See discussion below.)


Margaret was twelve when she married Edmund on 1 November 1455. Edmund died the following November, leaving a thirteen year old widow who was seven months pregnant with their child, Henry. Margaret and her son retired to Pembroke when the wars between Lancaster and York broke out and remained there until the Yorkist triumphs of 1461. The readeption of 1470 saw her return to court but her son fled to Brittany with his uncle, Jasper Tudor.

Margaret married twice more after Edmund's death:

* Sir Henry Stafford (c. 1447 - 4 October 1471), son of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham.
* Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby

She had no children with either, and it has been suggested by historians that the birth of her son Henry when she was only thirteen years old was difficult enough to render her infertile.


Margaret was instrumental in secretly conspiring against King Richard III with the Dowager Queen Consort, Elizabeth Woodville, whose sons, the Princes in the Tower, were presumed murdered. They were aided by the fact that Margaret's third husband, Thomas Stanley, the Lord High Constable, had switched sides because Richard III held captive his eldest son, George Stanley (styled Lord Strange by marriage to the female holder of that hereditary lordship). George was Thomas Stanley's son by his first wife, Eleanor Neville, whose brother, Richard Neville was very active in the Wars of the Roses. Margaret was Thomas Stanley's second wife.

At the end of the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, it was Thomas Stanley who placed the crown on his stepson's — Henry VII's — head. Stanley was later made Earl of Derby, which made Margaret Countess of Derby, but she was styled "The Countess of Richmond and Derby."

With her son winning the crown at Bosworth Field, Margaret was now referred to in court as "My Lady the King's Mother." However, Margaret was reluctant to accept a lower status than the dowager queen consort Elizabeth Woodville or even her daughter-in-law, Elizabeth of York, the current queen consort. She wore robes of the same quality as the queen consort and walked only half a pace behind her.

Margaret sometimes signed herself Margaret R, the form of signature used by English queens regnant to indicate the title "Regina," the feminine form of "Rex." This referenced Margaret's own potential claim to the English throne, which would have had precedence over her son's claim, though she never asserted it. Had she successfully done so, she would have been a queen regnant — ruling in her own right, not through marriage — and entitled her to sign documents with the suffix "Regina." (See "Marriages" above for more on Margaret's own right to the English throne.)

Many historians believe the banishment of Woodville in 1487 by Henry VII of England was partly at the behest of his influential mother. Margaret was known for her education and her piety, and her son is said to have been devoted to her.

In 1497 she announced her intention to build a free school for the general public of Wimborne, Dorset. With her death in 1509, Wimborne Grammar School, now Queen Elizabeth's School, came into existence.

In 1502 she established the Lady Margaret's Professorship of Divinity at the University of Cambridge.

In 1505, following the accession of her son Henry VII to the throne, she refounded and enlarged God's House, Cambridge as Christ's College with a royal charter from the King. She has been honoured ever since as the Foundress of the College. A copy of her signature can be found carved on one of the buildings (4 staircase, 1994) within the College. In 1511, St John's College, Cambridge was founded by her estate, either at her direct behest or at the suggestion of her chaplain. Land that she owned around Great Bradley in Suffolk was bequeathed to St John's upon its foundation. Her portrait hangs in the Great Hall at St John's, and the college boat club is called the Lady Margaret Boat Club (LMBC).


Lady Margaret Hall, the first women's college at the University of Oxford, was named in her honour.

Margaret died on 29 June 1509 in the Deanery of Westminster Abbey, just over two months after the death of her son. She is buried in a black marble tomb topped with a bronze gilded effigy and canopy, between the graves of William and Mary and the tomb of Mary, Queen of Scots, in the Henry VII's Chapel in Westminster Abbey.

Isabella of Aragon

Isabella of Aragon, Queen of Portugal, Sister of Catherine of Aragon

Isabella, Princess of Asturias (2 October 1470 – 28 August 1498) was the Queen Consort of Portugal and the eldest daughter and heiress presumptive of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. Her younger sisters were Catherine, Queen of England, Queen Joanna I of Castile, and Maria, Queen of Portugal.


Isabella

In 1490 Isabella married Afonso, Crown Prince of Portugal, the heir of John II of Portugal. Though it was an arranged marriage, Isabella and Afonso quickly fell in love, and Isabel was grief-stricken when he died in 1491: sent home to her parents by John II, she declared that she would never marry again, and would enter a convent. Her parents ignored this, and in 1497 she was persuaded to marry to Manuel I of Portugal, Afonso's uncle and John II's cousin and successor. She did so on condition that Manuel followed her parents' policy and expelled the Jews who would not convert to Christianity from his realm. This he duly did. In the same year, she became Princess of Asturias and heiress of Castile, following the death of her only brother, John. In 1498, she herself died in child-birth, giving birth to Miguel da Paz, who was heir to the thrones of Castile and Portugal until his death in 1500. Manuel's chance to become king of Castile vanished with Isabella's death, and the main hope of uniting all Iberian kingdoms vanished at Miguel's death. Manuel then married Isabella's younger sister, Maria of Aragon, who bore him his son and heir John III. Portugal and Spain would themselves be united from 1580 -1640, when Manuel and Maria's grandson (by their daughter Isabella and Charles I of Spain), Philip II of Spain, successfully claimed Portuga

Isabelle of Castile,

Isabelle of Castile, Mother of Catherine of Aragon

Isabella I (Spanish: Isabel I) (Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Ávila, April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504 in Medina del Campo, Valladolid) was Queen of Castile and León. She and her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon, laid the foundation for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.


As a key character in completing the Reconquista, establishing the Spanish Inquisition, sponsoring Christopher Columbus' voyages that led to the discovery of America, laying the foundations of modern Spain and the Spanish Empire, she is considered one of the most important sovereigns in world history.

This painting of Isabella of Castile as a young woman shows her remarkable resemblance to her daughter Catherine at a similar age.

King Ferdinard

King Ferdinard of Aragon, Father of Catherine of Aragon

After Isabella's death, her kingdom went to their daughter Joanna. Ferdinand served as the latter's regent during her absence in the Netherlands, ruled by her husband Archduke Philip. Ferdinand attempted to retain the regency permanently, but was rebuffed by the Castilian nobility and replaced with Joanna's husband, who became Philip I of Castile. After Philip's death in 1506, with Joanna supposedly mentally unstable, and her and Philip's son Charles of Ghent was only six years old, Ferdinand resumed the regency, ruling through Francisco Cardinal Jimenez de Cisneros, the Chancellor of the Kingdom.

Ferdinand disagreed with Philip's policies. In 1505, Ferdinand remarried with Germaine of Foix, a granddaughter of his half-sister Queen Leonor of Navarre, in hopes of fathering a new heir and so separating Aragon and Castile (denying Philip the governance of Aragon), and to potentially lay claim to Navarre.

Ferdinand died in 1516 in Madrigalejo, Extremadura.


Elizabeth of York and Jane Seymour

Elizabeth of York (11 February 1466 – 11 February 1503) was the daughter, sister, niece, wife and mother of Kings of England. She was Queen of England as spouse of King Henry VII, whom she married in 1486.

Elizabeth of York and Jane Seymour, copy of the Whitehall Mural

Elizabeth of York (Henry VIII's mother) and Jane Seymour from a copy if the The Dynasty Portrait or The Whitehall Mural. The original by Hans Holbein was destroyed in the fire at Whitehall. This copy was made by Remigius van Leemput for Charles II in 1698. Jane's pose is identical to that of the preparatory sketch for her portraits as queen.
Royal Collection © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II


Elizabeth Woodville,

Elizabeth Woodville, Queen of England, Mother of Elizabeth of York, Grandmother of Arthur, Margaret, Henry, and Mary Tudor

Edward IV Trouwt Stiekem Elizabeth Woodville

James Stewart

James Stewart, Earl of Moray, illigitimate brother of Mary, Queen of Scots

James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray (c. 1531 – 11 January 1570), a member of the House of Stewart, was Regent of Scotland from 1567 until his assassination in 1570.

Moray was the illegitimate son of King James V of Scotland and Lady Margaret Erskine, daughter of John Erskine, 5th Lord Erskine. After the return of his half-sister Queen Mary I in 1561, he became her chief adviser, and was created Earl of Moray by her the following year. In 1562 he defeated a rebellion by George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly, at the Battle of Corrichie near Aberdeen. About this time Moray married Agnes (d. 1588), daughter of William Keith, 4th Earl Marischal.


After Moray opposed Mary's marriage to Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley in 1565, he embarked upon the unsuccessful 'Chaseabout Raid', together with the Earl of Argyll, and Clan Hamilton. He was subsequently declared an outlaw and took refuge in England. Returning to Scotland after the murder of David Rizzio, he was pardoned by the Queen. He contrived, however, to be away at the time of Darnley's assassination, and avoided the tangles of the marriage with Bothwell by going to France. After the abdication of Queen Mary at Loch Leven, in July 1567, he was appointed regent of Scotland. When Mary escaped from Loch Leven (May 2, 1568) the Duke of Chatelherault and other nobles rallied to her standard, but Moray gathered his allies and defeated her forces at the Battle of Langside, near Glasgow (May 13, 1568), and compelled her to flee to England. For this and the subsequent management of the kingdom he secured both civil and ecclesiastical peace, and earned the title of "The Good Regent." Moray was responsible for the destruction of Rutherglen castle which he burned to the ground in 1569, in retribution against the Hamiltons for having supported Mary, at the Battle of Langside.


Moray was assassinated in Linlithgow in January 1570 by James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, a supporter of Mary. Hamilton, using a gun, shot and fatally wounded Moray from a window at his uncle John Hamilton's house as Moray was passing in a cavalcade in the main street below. His was the first ever recorded assassination by a firearm. He was buried on 14 February 1570 at St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh. His wife, Agnes was buried inside his tomb when she died in 1588.

Charles

Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, brother of Marie de Guise, Uncle of Mary, Queen of Scots

Princess Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk, from the wedding portrait



Queen Mary I

Mogelijke Portret van Mary Tudor?
Queen Mary I as a teenager: A drawing based on Hobein with enhanced detail
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Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, was Henry VIII's closest friend. Brandon's father was Henry VII's standard-bearer at the Battle of Bosworth Field and died defending the future king. Henry VII repaid his loyalty by educating young Charles with his own children, and from the beginning Charles and the future Henry VIII were devoted friends. But their friendship was sorely tested when Brandon secretly married Henry's favorite sister, the beautiful Princess Mary Tudor. At this page, you can learn more about their romantic story and its aftermath.

Henry Brandon, Earl of Lincoln, Son of Princess Mary Tudor, Nephew of Henry VIII

Henry Brandon, 1st Earl of Lincoln (11 March 1516 – 8 March 1534 Southwark) was the eldest child and only son born to Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Mary Tudor, Queen of France, who was a daughter of Henry VII of England. Thus Henry Brandon was nephew to Henry VIII of England. His younger sisters were Lady Frances Brandon and Lady Eleanor Brandon.


Henry Brandon was born in London, about a month after his first cousin Mary I of England. His paternal grandparents were Sir William Brandon and Elizabeth Bruyn. His maternal grandparents were Henry VII of England and his queen consort Elizabeth of York.

His maternal uncles were Arthur, Prince of Wales, Henry VIII of England, Edward Tudor and Edmund Tudor, Duke of Somerset. His maternal aunts were Margaret Tudor, Elizabeth Tudor and Katherine Tudor.

Brandon was created Earl of Lincoln by Henry VIII on 18 June 1525. His father planned a marriage for him with Catherine Willoughby, a peeress in her own right and daughter of Maria de Salinas, who had been one of the queen's ladies-in-waiting.

William Wentworth – 2nd Earl of Strafford



Throughout Brandon's life, there was a small but real possibility that he would one day become king of England. At the time of his birth, Princess Mary was Henry VIII's only child, and his Queen consort Catherine of Aragon was already thirty years old and with little prospect of having any more children. Next in line after the king's children was his sister Margaret Tudor, and her children, but their place in the succession was not secure - Henry would later exclude them by the Second Succession Act (1536), and by his will. Next in line after that came the Duchess of Suffolk and her son Henry Brandon, who during his own lifetime (he died before Henry's son Edward was born), was the only person in the line of succession who had the twin qualifications of being male, and English. However he died unmarried at the age of seventeen.


Brandon's mother pre-deceased him, and his own death created royal ambitions in his sister Frances. After the death of the Duchess of Suffolk, the Duke married Catherine Willoughby himself. Brandon's niece Lady Jane Grey eventually, and briefly, succeeded to the throne on 10 July 1553.


Edward Seymour

Edward Seymour, Brother of Queen Jane

Seymour was born in about 1506, to Sir John Seymour and Margery Wentworth, a celebrated beauty, immortalised in the works of John Skelton. Edward's first marriage, to Catharine Fillol, was annulled when it was discovered she was having an affair with his father. His second marriage was to Anne Stanhope.


Edward was the eldest brother of Jane Seymour, who would become Henry VIII's third queen consort. When Jane married the King in 1536, Seymour was created Viscount Beauchamp 5 June, and on 15 October 1537 Earl of Hertford. He became Warden of the Scottish Marches and continued in favour after his sister's death in 1537. Their brother, Thomas, also gained power through their sister's advancement and married Henry VIII's sixth wife, Dowager Queen Catherine Parr, shortly after the death of the King. Seymour's nephew became Edward VI on the death of Henry VIII. Edward Seymour retained great influence over the boy king, Edward VI, in whose name he ruled the country, and was created Duke of Somerset on 15 February 1547, early in King Edward's reign.


Following his victory over the Scots at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, his position appeared unassailable. However, the Seymour brothers had accumulated enemies and grudges during their time in royal favour, and, shortly after his brother Thomas's downfall in 1548, Edward, too, fell from power. His position, although not his office of Protector, was taken by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, later 1st Duke of Northumberland; his properties (such as Somerset House, Sleaford Castle and Berry Pomeroy Castle) were confiscated by the crown; and he was executed for treason at Tower Hill on January 22, 1552

Elizabeth of Austria

Elizabeth of Austria, granddaughter of Juana of Castile, great-niece of Catherine of Aragon

Juana of Castile

Juana of Castile, Queen of Castile, Sister of Catherine of Aragon

Juana reigned as Queen of Castile jointly with her husband Philip the Handsome and later also as Queen of Aragon jointly with her son the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. She was born in Toledo as the third child and second daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.

Mary Tudor

Mary Tudor, Later Mary I, daughter of Catherine of Aragon

Painted around the age of nine, she wears a badge that reads "The Emperor." This refers to her then fiance, Catherine of Aragon's nephew, Charles V, son of Philip the Fair and Juana of Castille.

Princess Mary Tudor

Princess Mary Tudor, sister of Henry VIII, as queen of France

This portrait truly shows why the princess was called the most beautiful woman in England. Her elderly husband, the king of France, was so delighted with her that the revelry may have contributed to his quick demise.

Anne Boleyn

Anne Boleyn, Queen of England, painted from an existing template for a noble family loyal to Elizabeth I during her reign

Maria, Queen of Hungary

Maria, Queen of Hungary, Niece of Catherine of Aragon

She was born in Brussels to Philip I of Castile ("the Handsome") and Joanna "The Mad" of Castile. Her paternal grandparents were Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife Mary of Burgundy. Her maternal grandparents were Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile.



Maria was a younger sister of Eleanor of Habsburg, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Isabella of Habsburg and Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor. She was an older sister of Catherine of Habsburg.

Before Maria closed her first year of life, she was promised as a wife to the first son to be born to Ladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary and his fourth wife Anne de Foix. This son was born in 1506 and was to become Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia.

MARY BROWNE (c.1513-1539+)

Mary Browne was the daughter of Sir Matthew Browne of Beckworth Castle, Surrey (1473-August 6, 1557) and Frideswide Guildford. In about 1539, she married Richard Tame or Tamewe. She is my best guess to have been one of Princess Mary's ladies in waiting, appearing on the list of October 1, 1533, shortly before the princess's household was dissolved. In 1536, when Mary was again to have a household of her own, she asked for only three persons by name from her previous households. Mary Browne was one of them, described by the princess as "sometime my maid, whom for her virtue I love and could be glad to have in my company."

They were married on 13 January 1522 in Buda. Their joint portrait still exists. Both his robes and her alleged wedding dress are on display at the National Museum of Hungary.

Maria served as Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia for four years and seven months. On 29 August 1526, Louis was killed in the Battle of Mohács while leading his forces against Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire. They were childless. The joined crowns of Hungary and Bohemia passed to her brother Ferdinand.

It was an arranged marriage, but it became a happy one. After the death of Louis she continuously mourned him till her death. After the battle of Mohács, Nicolaus Olahus, secretary of Louis, attached himself to the party of King Ferdinand I, but retained his position with the queen-dowager. She rejected every marriage proposal and always wore the heart-shaped medallion that was worn by her husband in the fatal battle of Mohács.

Edward VI, King of England


Jean Fouquet.

Jean Fouquet, painter and apparent inventor of the portrait miniature

Jean Fouquet or Jehan Fouquet (1420 - 1481) was the most important French painter of the 15th century, a master of both panel painting and manuscript illumination, and the apparent inventor of the portrait miniature. Hisself portrait (1450) is the earliest portrait miniature, and possibly the earliest formal self-portrait.

Jean Fouquet was born in Tours. Little is known of his life, but it is certain that he was in Italy about 1437, where he executed a portrait of Pope Eugene IV (now surviving only in much later copies), and that upon his return to France, while retaining his purely French sentiment, he grafted the elements of the Tuscan style, which he had acquired during his period in Italy, upon the style of the Van Eycks, which was the basis of early 15th-century French art, and thus became the founder of an important new school. He was court painter to Louis XI.

Edward VI

Edward VI, son of Jane Seymous, postumous miniature by Nicholas Hilliard

Elizabeth Stuart

Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, daughter of James I, granddaughter of Mary Queen of Scots

Elizabeth, Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (born Elizabeth of Scotland; 19 August 1596 – 13...


De Inca Koning lijst


ELIZABETH BRUGGE or BRUGES (d. January 26, 1525)

ELIZABETH BRUGGE or BRUGES (d. January 26, 1525) Elizabeth Brugge or Bruges was the daughter of Thomas Brugge or Bruges of Cobberley (1427-January 30, 1492/3) and Florence Darrell (c.1425-1506). She married first William Cassey of Wightfield, Gloucestershire (d.1509) and second Walter Rowdon. By her first husband she had two sons, Leonard (1506-1513) and Robert (d.1547). Some online genealogy websites give Cassey’s surname as Carey. A site for St. Mary’s Church, Deerhurst, where Elizabeth is buried, gives her second husband the surname Nowden. Portrait: memorial brass.

FRANCES BRYDGES (1580-1663)


FRANCES BRYDGES (1580-1663) Frances Brydges was the daughter of William Brydges, 4th baron Chandos (d.1602) and Mary Hopton (d. October 23,1624). She may have been a maid of honor. By 1603, she had married Sir Thomas Smith (c.1556-November 1609), a courtier who was named Master of Requests in 1608. They had two children, Robert (1605-1626) and Margaret, and houses in Westminster and Parsons Green, Fulham. In 1610, Frances married Thomas Cecil, earl of Exeter (1542-1623) by whom she had a daughter. Queen Anne attended the christening as godmother and named the baby Georgi-Anna (June 1616-1621). Frances entertained lavishly at Wimbledon but she was also involved in a scandal when Exeter’s grandson, Lord Ros (d.1618) was blackmailed by his wife, Anne Lake, and her parents (see MARY RYTHER). The hostilities extended to accusing Frances of an incestuous relationship with Ros and an attempt to poison Lady Ros. In February 1619 the charges and countercharges were finally heard in the Star Chamber with King James presiding. There were over 17,000 pages of evidence. Frances was vindicated. Lady Lake and her husband and Lady Ros were imprisoned in the Tower of London and fined. Following her second husband’s death, Frances returned to Fulham, where she lived until 1632, when she turned the property over to her daughter, Margaret, and Margaret’s husband, Thomas Carey (d.1634). She made her will on January 20, 1663. It was proved July 17. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Cecil [née Brydges; other married name Smith], Frances.” Portraits: painting by Van Dyck, now missing; drawing by Van Dyck; both from the 1630s.







Kruis van de Duitse Orde

Coat of arms of the Teutonic Order Grand Master

Alternate Coat of Arms of the Teutonic Order

Coat of arms of the Teutonic Order

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